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    Big Reasons Why You Should Invest in a Vacuum Sealer This Fall It seems the whole world has embraced the ethos of the ant this season, and not the grasshopper. Collectively we are preserving and storing food more than ever before: to maximize summer/early fall produce bounties, to reduce food waste in anticipation of tighter access to foods in coming pandemic months, and to have something productive to do while spending so much time at home. It’s been a big turn for many of us, but in many ways a good one. RELATED: The 10 Best Plastic-Free Food Storage Containers for a Greener Kitchen Which is why it’s time to talk about vacuum sealers. Built to do just what it sounds like—seal up food for easy long-term storage by removing any air—vacuum sealers can be tremendously useful for food preservation of all kinds. Here are the top 3 reasons you should consider investing in a vacuum sealer now, plus great models to buy now. It might seem counterintuitive for a small household, but a vacuum sealer is a terrific investment if you are only one or two at home. Since smaller households tend to go through food at a slower pace, the ability to preserve foods in smaller amounts or to store them over a longer time will help you avoid food spoilage. Whether it is repackaging a partially used wedge of parmesan cheese, breaking down a package of meat into smaller portions for freezing, or re-sealing pantry items like crackers or cereal to keep them from staling, a vacuum sealer is a great thing to have in your kitchen. A vacuum sealer does two things: it removes air from the container (usually a bag), then it seals the bag with a heated strip, trapping the vacuum inside. Air is removed with a pump that works by pulling air at a faster rate than ambient air can replace it. Pump quality varies, and is in large part the deciding factor on the price of a food vacuum sealer machine. Many edge vacuum sealers have pups with plastic parts. They work alright and can achieve a decent vacuum, but they overheat easily. They have to cool down in between uses, and often can't withstand heavy use. Higher quality food vacuum sealers have heavier-duty pumps made of sturdier parts. They can withstand frequent use and don't need to cool down between uses. back to top Why Is Vacuum So Great at Preserving Food? Contact with oxygen is what deteriorates food, causing spoilage. In the freezer, it causes ice to form, creating freezer burn. Vacuum packing removes almost all of the oxygen from the food container. When there is little oxygen to react with, food stays fresher longer in the pantry and the refrigerator, and won't get freezer burn in the freezer. That’s really all there is to it. It is not possible to remove 100% of the oxygen by vacuum sealing. So vacuum-sealed food doesn’t last forever. But it can remove enough oxygen to greatly extend shelf life. Some estimates are that vacuum sealing extends the life of frozen food by up to 5 years! back to top The Two Types of Food Vacuum Sealers: External and Internal There are two main types of food vacuum sealers: edge sealers and chamber vacuum sealers (typically called “chamber vacs”). Both types have advantages and disadvantages. Edge sealers, also called external sealers or suction sealers, are the simplest and most common type of automatic vacuum sealer. You simply fill a bag with food, place the bag in the sealer, and begin the sealing process. The vacuum is created inside the bag only, which makes it nearly impossible to seal anything but solid foods (because the pump will suck out liquid as it sucks out air). Many edge sealers have options for moist foods and soft foods, allowing you to control the amount of vacuum they pull so as not to draw moisture up into the pump or crush soft food (bread, for example) with too much vacuum. Decreasing the vacuum leaves air in the bag, however, so you may get similar results by just using a Ziploc or other food storage bag for soft/moist foods. One clever workaround is to freeze liquids before vacuum sealing. They use special resealable bags that have a small hole through which vacuum is pulled. Handheld sealers are tiny and generally don't pull a super strong vacuum, but because the bags are reusable, usually for up to 10 times, they're great for leftovers and sous vide (as opposed to long term freezer or pantry storage). In general, edge sealers are the most economical choice, but are sometimes not as well made as chamber vacuums. Most consumer brands--like FoodSaver and Seal-a-Meal--are not designed for heavy use. The pumps overheat easily, so you need to let the machine cool down in between uses. This can be frustrating and time consuming if you're freezing, say, half a cow or a few bushels of veggies from your garden. But for a few steaks or a tray of chicken breasts, they're great. How do you know if your edge sealer has good internal components? Simple: spend more than $300 for it (like this Weston Pro 2300 edge sealer that gets good reviews). But if you're going to spend that much, you might want to start thinking about a chamber vacuum sealer instead. A chamber vac works by creating a vacuum inside a chamber. Because the pressure is equalized inside the entire chamber (and not just inside the bag), a household vacuum sealer can seal liquids. This is great for soups, stocks, leftovers, quick and easy marinades (you can get marinade results in 15-20 minutes in a vacuum sealed container), and many sous vide applications. Chamber vacuums pull a stronger vacuum than other portable vacuum sealer. Most chamber vacs also have the ability to adjust the vacuum so you can seal soft foods. But you don't do this with easy-to-use buttons like you can on an edge sealer. Instead, you adjust the actual amount of vacuum you want to pull. So while it's a little trickier to get the vacuum right--and may have a learning curve to figure out--it offers more control over the process. Once you have it set where you want it, you will rarely have to adjust it. Just as with edge sealers, you can keep on eye on the sealing process and stop the vacuum pulling at any time (for example, if food is starting to get crushed, or liquid is bubbling up into the sealing area). This packaging machine is used for vacuum packaging with packaging materials having a extremely high gas barrier for the purpose of food preservation. Most of these machines seal the bag containing food in the vacuum chamber. The four types of machines are classified by mechanical faculty: nozzle, chamber, skin, and deep-draw type. A Nozzle-Type Vacuum Packaging Machine A typical system of this type of machine is shown in Fig. 1. After air in the bag is evacuated through a nozzle, a mouth part of the bag is sealed by heater or impulse system. However, for blocks such as meat and meat products, the bag is mostly clipped with aluminum wire. The two processes of vacuumizing and sealing on most of this type of machines are automatically done, initiated by stepping on a foot swich. Accordingly, although the operation is easier than those of other types of vacuum packaging machines, the degree of vacuum of bags packaged by this type of machine is lower than for others. Vacuum packaging is a method of packaging where air from the interior of a package is removed in its entirety immediately prior to sealing the package. This involves placing food products in a plastic film package (or potentially a film package made with other polymer materials), removing air from inside the package with a vacuum pump, and then sealing the package (Church & Parsons, 1995). The materials used for vacuum packaging must be strong enough to withstand the vacuum, flexible enough to form around the food product, and have a very specific level of heat sensitivity. Regarding the heat sensitivity of the material, the material must be sealed during the packaging process, but also suitable for moderate temperatures during cooking (e.g., 75°C). This is especially the situation with the emerging popularity of sous vide cooking of foods. Vacuum packaging was invented in the 1950s by a German inventor named Karl Busch, who used the discovery for vacuum packaging meat products. Today, vacuum packaging is common for long duration storage of dry foods like cereals, nuts, cured meats, cheese, and smoked fish, as well as short duration storage of fresh foods like vegetables, meats, and liquids. Vacuum packaging of foods offers several distinct advantages for the food industry, mainly associated with the reduction, or even the potential elimination, of atmospheric oxygen. This slows the rate of oxidative reactions (i.e., lipid oxidation and protein oxidation) and limits the growth of aerobic bacteria and fungi. Vacuum packaging refers to the technique of removing air from a pack prior to sealing and it predates the use of gases as a means of food preservation. Its principal purpose is to remove oxygen by pulling the packaging material into intimate contact with the product. It works particularly well for frozen poultry such as turkeys, where the exclusion of air helps to reduce freezer burn, and for fatty fish such as salmon. Hand and semi-automatically operated vacuum packaging chamber machines are available, offering a relatively low cost option (vs. MAP gas packaging), for small- and medium-sized companies such as farms selling their own fresh meat and bacon. A significant advantage of vacuum packaging is that the pack volume is virtually the same as the product volume, with no ‘empty’ space inside the pack. However, this also means that products such as joints of meat are of unequal size, making them difficult to display. Dry goods such as pasta (provided the product can withstand the force of the packaging material being pulled around it without breaking up) lend themselves well to vacuum packaging. Products such as ground coffee and dried yeast can be packed in regular brick-shaped packs, thus minimising storage and distribution costs. Moderate vacuum packaging (MVP) is a variation of traditional vacuum packaging, used for respiring products such as prepared fruit and vegetables. The product is packed in a rigid airtight container or a pouch and is surrounded by normal air, but at a reduced pressure (around one-third of normal atmospheric pressure). This slows down the metabolism of the product and the growth of spoilage organisms (Laurila and Ahvenainen, 2002).

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    Certain wine glasses perform better than others (there is actually some science to back this up). That being said, what are the best wine Glass Cup for you? You can drink wine from whatever vessel you want, be it a wine glass, coffee mug, mason jar, or dixie cup. Heck, you can ditch the glass altogether and drink straight from the bottle for all I care. However, using the right glass improves the taste of wine. And they won’t cost you a fortune either. The Importance of a Proper Glass There is now there is a piece of scientific evidence that supports the importance of the Double Wall Glass Cup shape. In 2015, a Japanese medical group used a special camera to record images of ethanol vapors in different glasses. In their study, the research group showed how different glass shapes affected the density and position of vapors at the openings of different glasses. Why are there so many different glasses for wine? Of the many different wine glasses available, you’ll find that certain shapes are better for enjoying certain types of wine. By the way, it doesn’t really matter if your Espresso Glass Cup is stemmed or stemless. It’s more about how the shape of the vessel collects aromas and deposits wine into your mouth. (I know some of you enthusiasts will strongly disagree! 😉 ) Below is a summary of the primary glass shapes and the wines that tend to perform well in these shapes. First things first. Do you know those stemmed glasses that you fill all the way to the top? Those aren’t wine glasses. They are hipster cups. In order to taste flavors in wine you really need space above the wine to collect aromas. White Wine Glasses White wines are typically served in smaller bowled Wine Cup. Smaller glasses: Preserve floral aromas Maintain cooler temperature Express more acidity in wine Delivers more aromas (even at cooler temperatures) due to proximity to the nose You’ll notice that full-bodied white wines like oak-aged Chardonnay, Viognier, White Rioja, and orange wines are better with a larger bowl. The larger bowl, originally introduced by Riedel as a “Montrachet” glass, better emphasizes a creamy texture because of the wider mouth. Red Wine Glasses The choice of a red Wine Glass has a lot to do with mitigating the bitterness of tannin or spicy flavors to deliver a smoother tasting wine. After a few years of tasting wines from different glasses, we’ve noticed that red wines tend to taste smoother than a glass with a wide opening. Of course, the distance to the actual fluid affects what you smell.   GLASS TEAWARE Glass has the least impact on whatever hot drink it comes into contact with, therefore giving the truest representation of your tea leaves. Aside from being non-porous, its transparency allows the tea itself to shine. After all, we eat (and drink!) with our eyes. A beautiful glass teapot brings a sense of theatre to the tea table. If you’re appreciating the drama of a flowering tea, or getting lost in the unravelling of a delicate oolong, watching the leaves through glass can be an immersive, sensory, and even meditative experience. Glass also draws attention to those fantastic distinctions in liquor colour, so prized by tea connoisseurs. We begin to notice the amber, copper and ruby hues of a black tea, for example. Borosilicate glass Tea Wares are excellent heat retainers, and can keep your tea toasty for longer - no tea cosy necessary! Avoid thin glass receptacles like wine and untempered water glasses. As well as being fragile, these are dangerous to drink hot liquids from. There are few things in life more irritating than a Coffee Glass mug. Well, maybe people who wear Caucasian-flesh colored ice skates who think they’re somehow fooling everyone into believing that instead of a foot, they have some sort of Ken doll nub with a razor-sharp blade popping out. Or maybe even those rare, emotionally clued-in men who—right before taking a small, sensible sip of fair-trade Argentinian maté out of an environmentally sensible on-the-go thermos—whisper to a friend in the utmost confidence, “We’re pregnant.” Or maybe even fully grown adult human beings who wear snuggly-wuggly head-to-toe sweat suits and bring actual, real-sized pillows onto two-hour coach flights from New York to Charlotte because the slightest prospect of not being comfy-wumfy will trigger an existential spiral from which they will never recover. Yes, maybe the glass mug isn’t the worst of the worst things, but still, its very nature proves the existence of dark, calamitous forces hell-bent on tamping down truth and beauty and common sense in this world. Because, let’s be real, glass Coffee Cup lovers, who are you kidding? Are you so curious about your coffee that you absolutely must have a clear line of sight on it? Do you really need the drinkware version of a 24/7 motion and noise-sensitive baby monitor? Are the guessing games too much for you? Does seeing the exact level of coffee ease the pain of having to choose between tangible, empirical knowledge and the wildly unknowable idea of faith that exists deep down in the muddy ooze of your baboon DNA? Why Glass Is Best For Storing Food Glass is endlessly recyclable Glass doesn't degrade every time you recycle it (unlike all recycled plastics). It can be recycled into another jar or bottle that's just as good over and over again, without ever reducing its quality. Did you know it only takes around 30 days for your old glass wine bottle to be recycled and be back on the shelf made into something else? Without their lids, glass jars are made of one simple material which is easily recycled. Plus making glass from recycled glass that already exists reduces the CO2 emissions compared to making it from scratch, says consumer movement Friends of Glass. As well as reusing your Glass Storage Jars to house any number of pickles, dry goods and sauces, you can even recycle your glass into candle jars at home.

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    With so many packing materials and shipping containers available, why would wood be the best to use? There are a few reasons why wooden boxes and crates could be considered better than cardboard boxes-they are stronger, longer-lasting, and eco-friendly. Made of either lumber, plywood or engineered wood, these boxes and crates are an excellent way to transport any household item from one place to the next. This guide will explain the benefits of using wood boxes as an eco-friendly alternative to cardboard and plastic. Wood is a natural resource that is not only more environmentally conscious than man-made material but looks better as well. Read why using wood is the way to go when packing up and moving away. Wood is stronger than cardboard Bottom-line, wood boxes and crates can carry more weight than cardboard containers and provides more protection. While cardboard is a thin pasteboard made of heavy-duty paper wood is a hard, fibrous substance made of tree bark and branches that will hold up. A hard material like wood is more durable and will withstand more stress than a softer substance. This can easily be seen by the difference in wet wood and moist cardboard. While wet wood will only become damp, wet cardboard will eventually soften and tear. A good example of wood versus cardboard strength is apparent when transferring large quantities of books. If packed in a wood box or crate, books will remain in the container regardless of the total weight; however, with cardboard, they can and will often fall through the bottom of the container, especially if wet. Wood is better for long-term use Wood boxes and crates are also excellent for long-term use. After moving your belongings in the containers, the cartons can be reused in various other ways. From making a wooden planter to gifting produce, wood boxes and crates can be used creatively with a little imagination. One way to reuse wood crates is to paint the plywood and place anywhere throughout the house, making a decorative storage case for books, magazines, towels, blankets, pillows, toys and more. You can stack wooden crates Another benefit of wood boxes, and especially crates, is the ability to stack them high, creating space in small areas. Placing them one on top of the other utilizes more room in any part of the house. An added benefit of stacking crates rather than cardboard boxes, is not only the strength, but the easy view into the container. Being able to see what is in the crate saves a lot of time when searching for a particular item. Rather than searching through several taped boxes to locate something, you can simply look through the spaces between the wood to find what you are looking for. Reusable and Environmentally friendly Improperly disposing of cardboard and plastic can cause soil contamination and water pollution in landfills, bringing irreparable harm to the environment. One of the biggest benefits to using wood boxes and crates other than cardboard or plastic containers is the fact that the material is eco-friendly and does not cause environmental damage. Along with reusing wood boxes or crates for decorative purposes, you can also break down the wood and use for other projects, or even better, use it to keep you warm on a cold winter night. Simply break down the wood box or crate and throw the planks into the fire for fuel. With so many benefits to using wood boxes and crates, it is easy to see why they are more beneficial than other packing materials. And to top it off, you can get them for free by visiting your local liquor store and asking if they can spare any extra wine crates. Serving trays are handy items to have around the home, and a good-quality wooden serving tray ranks above all others. While a serving tray can serve many purposes, it is one of the most preferred home décor items for your personal as well as entertaining needs. Available in a variety of shapes and sizes, such as decorative round trays, wooden tray sets are a great investment as they make it easy to carry things around the home, serve food and drinks and use as a base for placing your décor items – a flower vase, terracotta figurines and even your green pots on a side table or a centre table. WONDERFUL WAYS TO USE A SERVING TRAY AT HOME No matter what you decide to do with a serving tray, one thing is for sure – serving platters are a great addition to your kitchen, dining space and even the bedroom. Think about breakfast in bed, and the first thing that comes to mind is a charming and decorate serving tray to hold your glass of fresh juice, a plate of sandwiches, and a bowl of corn flakes. On days when you are entertaining house guests in your garden, you can use decorative snacks serving tray to serve them tea/coffee and biscuits. Your guests will love your hospitality as well as compliment you on your exceptional taste in home décor. BEST-SELLING DECORATIVE WOODEN TRAYS ONLINE AT ARTYSTA GALLERY DINING TABLE SERVER A decorative wooden tray is an excellent purchase for placing condiments on your dining table. Take a look at our Handcrafted Decorative Wooden Tray with Kulhads that is great for serving tea/coffee. The beautiful Warli art adds to the tray’s appeal and celebrates India’s local art. LIVING ROOM SNACKS TRAY Having evening tea in the living room with family and friends becomes even more special when you enjoy tasty snacks served in an eye-catching snacks tray. Our boat-shaped Sheesham wood handmade wooden tray with two ceramic bowls is a must-buy. OUTDOOR WOODEN TRAY SET Sometimes all you want to do is enjoy the pleasant weather, sipping tea and snacks from the comforts of your balcony or kitchen garden. Our Warli art Decorative Wooden tray set comes in handy here. Available in big and small sizes, the wooden trays with handles are just right for serving cups of tea/coffee, biscuits and tasty refreshments.  

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    Peptides vs proteins - what's the difference? If you’re looking for the difference between peptides and proteins, the short answer is ‘size’. Both peptides and proteins are made up of strings of the body’s basic building blocks – amino acids – and held together by peptide bonds. In basic terms, the difference is that peptides are made up of smaller chains of amino acids than proteins. But the definition, and the way scientists use each term, is a little loose. As a general rule, a peptide contains two or more amino acids. And just to make it a little more complicated, you will often hear scientists refer to polypeptides – a chain of 10 or more amino acids. Dr Mark Blaskovich from the Institute for Molecular Bioscience (IMB) at The University of Queensland in Australia says approximately 50-100 amino acids is the cut-off between a peptide and a protein. But most peptides found in the human body are much shorter than that – chains of around 20 amino acids. There’s also an important variant of peptide called the cyclotide. As with the peptide and the protein, the cyclotide is also comprised of a string of amino acids, but unlike the others, the ends of a cyclotide are joined together to form a circle. As we’ll discuss below, this structure is important in the manufacture of therapeutic peptide-based drugs. As for proteins, biochemists generally reserve the term for large peptide molecules, which can either be one long chain of 100 or more amino acids – a ‘complex polypeptide’, if you like – or they can be comprised of several amino acid chains joined together. Haemoglobin, found in your red blood cells and essential for carrying oxygen, is such a protein. It’s made up of four different amino acid chains – two with 141 amino acids each and two with 146 amino acids each. Why peptides are the ‘next big thing’ in medical research Biochemists are excited by the possibilities presented by peptides and proteins as pharmaceuticals because they so often mimic exactly the behaviour of a natural ligand – the substance that interacts with the receptor on an enzyme or cell to cause a biological process. This gives peptide drugs the potential to be more precisely targeted, with fewer side effects than small-molecule drugs. Within the body, there are lot of different hormones that react with cells and trigger different biological processes. Often these are peptides, either cyclic versions or straight, linear ones. And then there’s the matter of how fast that peptide breaks down, which causes some stability issues, but in terms of safety, can be a positive. “We think peptides are the future of drugs for reasons of being more selective, more potent and potentially safer, because when a peptide eventually breaks down it just breaks down into amino acids, and amino acids are food, basically,” says Professor David Craik, who leads IMB’s Clive and Vera Ramaciotti Facility for Producing Pharmaceuticals in Plants. There are also manufacturing considerations that make peptides attractive – their length allows them to be chemically synthesised, as opposed to proteins that are generally expressed in yeast or mammalian cells. So that’s peptides. What are the applications for proteins? The most promising application of proteins is as antibodies, which are themselves a form of protein. Particularly in anti-cancer applications, there are a lot of antibodies either in the clinic or under development. Two well-known examples are Herceptin (trastuzumab) for breast cancer, and Humira (adalimumab) for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. The advantage of using proteins is the same as for the drug applications of peptides – they mimic something that is natural in the body, or replace something that’s missing or damaged. In the case of antibodies, protein-based drugs use the same strategy as the body does to target things. That way the drug can provide the specificity required, while also avoiding the off-target effects that a small molecule drug can have, causing bad side effects. When will we see new peptide-based medications? Stability can be an issue, as peptides can degrade very quickly, and that means it can be difficult to dose a patient with a peptide. And according to your body, peptides and proteins are basically just food, which makes administering peptide drugs in an oral form quite difficult, as the body promptly digests them. “That’s why drug developers often try going from a peptide and mimicking it with a small molecule instead, because the small molecule potentially has better properties for a drug, where the small molecule stay around in the body longer and can be administered orally,” Dr Blaskovich said. But the challenge is to get the small molecule to mimic the peptide. “Billions are spent by the pharmaceutical industry trying to do this,” Dr Blaskovich added. “That’s why if you’re able to come up with drugs that are peptides, rather than having to convert them into small non-peptidic molecules, it’s potentially a much faster way to develop a potent, selective, and apt drug.” The pharmaceutical industry remains sceptical, mainly due to the stability issue, but also the difficulty in getting orally administered peptides to cross the barrier of the gut and be taken up by the bloodstream. But intravenous and subcutaneous use of peptides as drugs is becoming more common. There are around 60 FDA-approved peptide drugs on the market, with about 140 peptide drugs in clinical trials, and over 500 in pre-clinical (before human testing) development. There are agricultural applications too While the stability of peptides is a challenge to be overcome in human use, it’s a double-edged sword, and may be an advantage in some agricultural uses. The speed of degradation of peptides used as insecticides or fungicides means that they are not going to persist in the environment. So creating greater stability of peptides can work both ways. If the stability of the peptide can be tailored, then it can be made to last long enough to work on the crop, but then also to degrade. This means it would not cause the long-term problems of DDT, for example, which can exist for hundreds of years. Why are experts so excited about peptide drugs? Cyclotides - the central focus of Craik’s work - have great potential to address the issues of stability of peptide drugs. As they structurally form a circle, cyclotides do not have the weak point of loose ends that speed up degradation by our digestive enzymes. They are further stabilised by several interlocking cross-links, forming a compact, very stable structure. This helps them reach their target intact, even when taken orally. Blaskovich’s group is working on two promising peptide-based antibiotics to deal with growing antibiotic resistance. The first of these is to enhance the glycopeptide (peptides with sugar molecules on them) antibiotic Vancomycin, by trying to make it a super-vancomycin that more selectively targets bacterial cells. This approach starts with vancomycin as the core, with additional groups added on to interact selectively with the bacterial cell instead of a mammalian cell. The aim is to increase its potency at killing bacteria and reduce the unwanted side effects it has on human cells. The second research program is developing antibiotics that attack Gram negative bacteria - generally considered the more difficult to fight. These peptides are cyclic lipopeptides (peptides with a fatty acid, or lipid, attached) with eight to 10 amino acids. You might have already taken a peptide-based drug One of the best-known peptide-based drugs is exenatide, which is marketed under the name Byetta. It’s used to help control blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes patients. It works by increasing the insulin production in response to meals and is a synthetic form of the peptide found in the venom of the Gila monster - a species of venomous lizard native to the US and Mexico. It’s a linear peptide containing 39 amino acids that was developed some 10 years ago, and is now widely used. Defining Antiaging Nutraceuticals The term antiaging can incorporate a broad range of nutraceutical possibilities. For the purpose of this article, let’s define antiaging nutraceuticals as those nutracentical ingredients that help to address health and wellness issues associated with aging. In this context, that would potentially include nutraceuticals that can positively impact the aging process itself as well as those that positively impact aspects of human physiology that tend to decline with age, such as joint health and cognitive health. Ahead, we touch on a few promising contenders. The benefits of organic food How your food is grown or raised can have a major impact on your mental and emotional health as well as the environment. Organic foods often have more beneficial nutrients, such as antioxidants, than their conventionally-grown counterparts and people with allergies to foods, chemicals, or preservatives may find their symptoms lessen or go away when they eat organic fruit and vegetable powder. Organic produce contains fewer pesticides. Chemicals such as synthetic fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides are widely used in conventional agriculture and residues remain on (and in) the food we eat. Organic food is often fresher because it doesn’t contain preservatives that make it last longer. Organic produce is sometimes (but not always, so watch where it is from) produced on smaller farms nearer to where it is sold. Organic farming tends to be better for the environment. Organic farming practices may reduce pollution, conserve water, reduce soil erosion, increase soil fertility, and use less energy. Farming without synthetic pesticides is also better for nearby birds and animals as well as people who live close to farms. Organically raised animals are NOT given antibiotics, growth hormones, or fed animal byproducts. Feeding livestock animal products increases the risk of mad cow disease (BSE) and the use of antibiotics can create antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Organically-raised animals tend to be given more space to move around and access to the outdoors, which help to keep them healthy. Organic meat and milk can be richer in certain nutrients. Results of a 2016 European study show that levels of certain nutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, were up to 50 percent higher in organic meat and milk than in conventionally raised versions. Organic food is GMO-free. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) or genetically engineered (GE) foods are plants whose DNA has been altered in ways that cannot occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding, most commonly in order to be resistant to pesticides or produce an insecticide. Organic food vs. locally-grown food Unlike organic standards, there is no specific definition for “local food”. It could be grown in your local community, your state, your region, or your country. During large portions of the year it is usually possible to find food grown close to home at places such as a farmer’s market. The benefits of locally grown food Financial: Money stays within the local economy. More money goes directly to the farmer, instead of to things like marketing and distribution. Transportation: In the U.S., for example, the average distance a meal travels from the farm to the dinner plate is over 1,500 miles. Produce must be picked while still unripe and then gassed to “ripen” it after transport. Or the food is highly processed in factories using preservatives, irradiation, and other means to keep it stable for transport. Freshness: Local food is harvested when ripe and thus fresher and full of flavor. Some small local farmers use organic methods but may not be able to afford to become certified organic. Visit a farmer’s market and talk with the farmers to find out what methods they use. At the same time, we now have many ways to get organic plant extract.

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    Master alloys and alloying additives are alloy-element concentrates, grain refiners, hardeners, deoxidants, and other agents added to a melt or metal-powder blend to produce a particular alloy, modify a melt, or alter processing characteristics. They are designed to improve processes in metallurgy by refining the final properties of different rare metals. Alloying agents and elements are used as additions to modify or produce alloys in primary metal production melts, foundry melts, and powder metal-blend manufacturing.   Benefits of Master Alloys and Alloying Additives Master Alloys A master alloy is a pre-alloyed concentrate or mixture of alloying elements. They are used to add all the major alloying elements in one form to the base metal. For example, a 10% addition of 60% aluminum - 40% vanadium composition master alloy to 90% pure titanium will produce Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Master alloys are essential for adding small amounts of compounds with large melting point differentials. This is because adding a virgin metal to a melt can be inefficient in terms of energy and metal yield. For example, a small addition of pure copper (1083°C melting point) to a large mass of aluminum (660°C melting point) would require heating all the aluminum above 1083°C. A 50-50 master alloy of copper and aluminum eliminates unnecessary heating of the aluminum, allowing the correct percentage of this alloy to be added to the bulk of aluminum at a much lower temperature.  Master alloys are also the most effective method of introducing controlled levels of rare earth metals to more complex alloy systems. They help to control oxygen content within the alloy, stabilizing metals that would normally oxidize in the atmosphere. Copper-based master alloys are produced for the brass and copper industry. The range includes alloys such as Copper-Iron, Copper Manganese, Copper Boron and Copper Zirconium. The common factor among these alloys is that they dissolve better than the corresponding pure metal or metals. Using KBM Affilips copper-boron 2% master alloy is a great method for improving the quality of copper alloys and brasses. Boron is an effective deoxidiser for copper, without the harmful effect of reducing the electrical conductivity. The element is also highly effective when compared to other deoxidisers such as phosphorus, lithium or magnesium, therefore less boron is needed per kg of oxygen to achieve the same deoxidation effect. In copper alloys, boron also slows grain growth during heating. In addition, boron facilitates pouring and filling operations. In brasses, boron behaves as a strong grain refiner. It reacts with several elements present in the melt and the products formed are often insoluble compounds dispersed as fine particles through the melt which act as nucleants. The mechanical properties are increased with boron and the internal soundness of brass castings is improved.   Applications Major applications of copper boron alloys include: Deoxidiser for copper. Grain refiner for brass. Most of the ferrochrome produced worldwide is used in manufacturing stainless steel. The chromium content present in stainless steel provides resistance to corrosion as well as gives stainless steel its customary appearance. Around 18% of chrome is used in per unit content of stainless steel. Ferrochrome powder is used in the field of powder metallurgy. Ferrochrome slag is a chemically stable substance. It is used in road construction and civil engineering as well as in the production of refractory materials. Chromium powder can be used to repair and prevent the four pipes of the boiler, and metallurgically distribute the wear-resistant lining of the chute. The use of tubular wire surfacing with Cr3C2 will greatly increase the service life of the grinding roller.  

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    Pressure seal construction is adopted for Valves for high pressure service, typically in excess of above 170 bar. The unique feature about the pressure seal Bonnet is that the body-Bonnet joints seals improves as the internal pressure in the Valve increases, compared to other constructions where the increase in internal pressure tends to create leaks in the body-Bonnet joint. The higher the internal pressure, the greater the sealing force. Easy dismantling is made possible by dropping the Bonnet assembly into the body cavity and driving out the four-segmental thrust rings by means of a push pin.   Relying on fairly simple design principles, pressure seal valves have proven their capability to handle increasingly demanding fossil and combined-cycle steam isolation applications, as designers continue to push boiler, HRSG, and piping system pressure/temperature envelopes. Pressure seal Valves are typically available in size ranges from 2 inches to 24 inches and ASME B16.34 pressure classes from #600 to #2500, although some manufacturers can accommodate the need for larger diameters and higher ratings for special applications. Pressure seal gate valves are available in many material qualities such as A105 forged and Gr.WCB cast, alloy F22 forged and Gr.WC9 cast; F11 forged and Gr.WC6 cast, austenitic stainless F316 forged and Gr.CF8M cast; for over 500°C, F316H forged and suitable austenitic cast grades. The pressure seal design concept can be traced back to the mid-1900s, when, faced with ever increasing pressures and temperatures (primarily in power applications), Valve manufacturers began designing alternatives to the traditional bolted-Bonnet approach to sealing the body/Bonnet joint. Along with providing a higher level of pressure boundary sealing integrity, many of the pressure seal globe valves design weighed significantly less than their bolted Bonnet Valve counterparts. Bolted Bonnets vs. Pressure Seals To better understand the pressure seal design concept, let's contrast the body-to-Bonnet sealing mechanism between bolted Bonnets and pressure seals. FIG. 1 depicts the typical Bolted Bonnet valve. The body flange and Bonnet flange are joined by studs and nuts, with a gasket of suitable design/material inserted between the flange faces to facilitate sealing. Studs/nuts/bolts are tightened to prescribed torques in a pattern defined by the manufacturer to affect optimal sealing. However, as system pressure increases, the potential for leakage through the body/Bonnet joint also increases. Pressure Seal Gaskets One of the primary components involved in sealing the pressure seal Valve is the gasket itself. Early pressure seal gaskets were manufactured from iron or soft steel. These gaskets were subsequently silver-plated to take advantage of the softer plating material's ability to provide a tighter seal. Due to the pressure applied during the Valve's hydrotest, a set (or deformation of the gasket profile) between the Bonnet and gasket was taken. Because of the inherent Bonnet take-up bolt and pressure seal joint elasticity, the potential for the Bonnet to move and break that set when subjected to system pressure increases/ decreases existed, with body/Bonnet joint leakage the result. This problem could be effectively negated by utilizing the practice of "hot torquing" the Bonnet take-up bolts after system pressure and temperature equalization, but it required owner/user maintenance personnel to do so after plant startup. If this practice was not adhered to, the potential for leakage through the body/Bonnet joint existed, which could damage the pressure seal gasket, the Bonnet and/or the I.D. of the Valve body, as well as creating compounding problems and inefficiencies that the steam leakage could have on plant operations. As a result, Valve designers took several steps to address this problem. Although many manufacturers still recommend hot torquing, the potential for leakage when this is not done is greatly diminished. The seating surfaces in pressure seal Valves, as in many power plant Valves, are subjected to, comparatively speaking, very high seating loads. Seat integrity is maintained as a function of tight machining tolerances on component parts, means of providing the requisite torque to open/close as a function of gears or actuation, and selection/ application of proper materials for seating surfaces. Cobalt, nickel, and iron-based hardfacing alloys are utilized for optimal wear resistance of the wedge/disc and seat ring seating surfaces. Most commonly used are the CoCr-A (e.g., Stellite) materials. These materials are applied with a variety of processes, including shielded metal arc, gas metal arc, gas tungsten arc, and plasma (transferred) arc. Many pressure seal Globe Valves are designed having integral hardfaced seats, while the Gate Valves and Check Valves typically have hardfaced seat rings that are welded into the Valve body. Both butterfly valves and ball valves offer unique benefits, so choosing between them in certain processes isn't a hard choice. It can be problematic when a process requires valve characteristics that both valves have. We need a deeper understanding of the butterfly valve vs ball valve in order to pick the correct valve. Teflon is a polymer compound formed by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with excellent chemical stability, corrosion resistance, sealing, high lubrication and non-viscosity, electrical insulation and good aging resistance for media such as strong acid, strong alkali, strong oxidant. Its operating temperature is -200 ~ 180℃, poor fluidity, large thermal expansion. Teflon lined valves ensures extremely high chemical resistance and longevity, can be widely used in corrosive applications in the chemical, electric machinery,harmaceutical, petrochemical, fertilizer, pulp and paper, and metallurgical industries.

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    Scholar, Advocate

    Guangzhou Huale Inflatable Products Co., LTD is located in Guangzhou, China and now has become a modern enterprise integrated with designing, developing, producing, and marketing various inflatable products for more than 10 years. Our inflatable products include large water park, swimming pool, air track, inflatable sup, inflatable tent, inflatable games, inflatable bouncy castle, inflatable slide, inflatable boat, Ad inflatables. Huale owns advanced equipment, skilled workers, good management system and strict quality control. The products have got CE /UL certificate and are well received by the clients. So they are further exported to more than 30 countries and regions of the world such as Europe, America, Middle East, South Asia etc. We will maintain business principle of quality first, technology innovation and customer utmost and will keep harder efforts to meet the different requirements of the clients. Utmost and will keep harder efforts to meet the different requirements of the clients. Inflatable water park, swimming pool, air track, inflatable sup, inflatable tent, inflatable sport games, inflatable bouncer, inflatable slide, inflatable obstacle course, inflatable boat, Ad inflatables Water park, amusement park, party, gym, outdoor activity, home use and so on.China Yoga Inflatable Sup Paddle Board manufacturers website:

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    What are antioxidants? Antioxidants are molecules that fight free radicals in the body. Free radicals are compounds that can cause harm if they are too high in your body. They are related to a variety of diseases, including diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Your body has its own antioxidant defense system to control free radicals. However, antioxidants ingredients are also present in foods, especially in fruits, vegetables and other whole plant foods. Several vitamins, such as vitamins E and C, are effective antioxidants. Antioxidant preservatives also play a vital role in food production by extending shelf life. How do free radicals work Free radicals are constantly forming in your body. Without antioxidants, free radicals can quickly cause serious damage and eventually death. However, free radicals also have important functions vital to health. For example, your immune cells use free radicals to fight infection. Therefore, your body needs to maintain a certain balance between free radicals and antioxidants. When the number of free radicals exceeds that of antioxidants, it leads to a state called oxidative stress. Prolonged oxidative stress can damage your DNA and other important molecules in your body. Sometimes it even leads to cell death. DNA damage increases the risk of cancer, and some scientists speculate that it plays a key role in aging. Long-term oxidative stress can lead to an increased risk of negative health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. While COVID accelerated the trend of adding Immunity Enhancement Ingredients to processed food, it is not exactly a new concept. Products with such characteristics—think probiotic yogurt products and gummy bears spiked with zinc and echinacea—have been growing in popularity for years. And food processors have grown in their understanding of how their products can improve the immune system. Cnidium is a native Chinese plant that has also been identified in the US in Oregon. Cnidium is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been used for thousands of years, especially for dermatological conditions. It has been a common ingredient in Chinese lotions, creams, and ointments. A pro-erectile herb, Cindium monnieri extract and its main bioactive known as osthole appear to have mechanisms similar to Viagra in penile tissue and the hippocampus. The usable parts of cnidium are the fruit, seed, and whole plant. Active properties of cnidium are the coumarin derivatives including: Osthol Imperatorin Isopimpinellin Xanthotoxin Bergapten Additional coumarins have also been identified including cnidimonal, cnidimarin, and others. Cnidium is used orally for increasing sexual performance and libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility, body building, increasing energy, cancer, osteoporosis, and fungal and bacterial infections. Cnidium is used topically for pruritus, rashes, eczema, and ringworm. Monk fruit is also called Luo Han Guo or swingle. It looks like a small gourd, and it grows on a vine. Monk fruit is native to regions of Southeast Asia, including some parts of Thailand and China. Buddhist monks in the 13th century were the first to cultivate the fruit, which is the reason for its name. Fresh monk fruit spoils rather quickly. Traditionally, people used dried monk fruit in herbal medicines. Today, monk fruit is the most popular natural sweetener ingredients. The fruit extract contains substances called mogrosides, which are intensely sweet. According to the International Food Information Council Foundation, monk fruit is around 150–200 times sweeter than sugar. Some manufacturers mix the extract with different sugars to balance out the intensity. A variety of monk fruit sweeteners are available to purchase online. Monk fruit pros A monk fruit sweetener has several benefits when compared with sugar: Zero calories. Monk fruit extract contains no calories, which is helpful for people on diets that restrict a person’s caloric intake. Zero carbohydrates. The extract also contains no carbohydrates, which may make it ideal for people on low-carb or keto diets. Zero sugar. There is no sugar in pure monk fruit extract, which means that consuming it will not affect blood sugar levels. No harmful side effects. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Trusted Source considers monk fruit sweeteners to be generally regarded as safe. There appears to be no evidence that monk fruit sweeteners cause harmful side effects. Available in multiple forms. Monk fruit sweeteners are marketed as granules, powders, and liquids. Some products may be easy to carry and use throughout the day. Nutraceutical ingredients find a wide variety of applications, such as functional food & beverages, animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the inclusion of nutraceutical ingredients in food & beverage products, feed products, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products results in an increase in the prices of these end products. This, in turn, leads to lower adoption of such products, thereby stunting market growth. Over the past few years, there has been an increase in the demand for healthy alternatives of consumables as consumers have become increasingly conscious about the correct diet. Nutraceutical ingredients, when added to any kind of food & beverage product, result in the formation of functional food & beverages, which, in some way, impart a health benefit.  

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    How Do Air Compressors Work? Air compressors are an invaluable tool for both industrial work and DIY at home, and there are several different types to choose from depending on the job you need doing. Air compressors have a number of uses, such as to fill gas cylinders for industrial purposes and scuba diving, to create the power needed to run pneumatic tools and spray guns, for pumping up automotive tyres, and within heating and air conditioning systems. As we’ve touched on here, there are myriad uses for screw air compressor both in commercial and domestic environments. Within the category of air guns, there are several types, each of which is suitable for a different job. We’ve compiled a guide to all the major types of air compressor, how they work and how they differentiate from one another. Whether you’re an engineering manager or in charge of facilities for your company, being informed about how air compressors function and what they’re used for is handy and can help you make the proper decisions for your business and industry. Get all the information you need to know about air compressors, complete with the infographic below, with our comprehensive guide. We’ll address the benefits of using premium air compressors in your industry, as well as the questions of ‘what are compressors?’ and ‘how does a compressor work?’, covering all the essentials in one convenient place. The infographic below shows how a Hydrovane series rotary sliding vane air compressor works Since their invention in the 19th Century, mechanical, automated air compressors have continued to be one of the most widely used tools in industrial settings. Air compressors provide a continuous stream of power that is safer and cooler than many other forms of energy. For many industries, such as metal work and mining environments, air compressors are an absolutely essential tool. After the basic utilities of water, gas and electric, compressed air is actually considered to be the fourth utility. Air compressors are also an affordable choice of tool for many manufacturing jobs, as they are durable, and high quality types require minimal maintenance and repairs. Between the two main categories of compressor – the scroll (piston) compressor and the rotary screw (reciprocating) compressor, you have a tool for every type of industrial and commercial setting, as well as various domestic uses. The most common types of regular screw air compressor are single and dual phase, both of which operate in the same fundamental way, only dual phase has one more step involved in the compression process. In a single phase compressor, there is one chamber and the air is compressed a single time; in a dual phase, there are two chambers and the air is put through compression twice. Be careful not to confuse single and dual phase compressors with the number of cylinders a compressor has. Both types of compressor use two cylinders; one-cylinder compressors are less common, because air balancing is made easier with two cylinders. The difference between single and dual stage compressors is that in the former the cylinders are both the same size; in the latter they are different sizes. How Do Single and Dual Phase Compressors Operate? Single phase compressors, also referred to as piston air compressors, works in a relatively simple and straightforward way. First, air is drawn into the cylinder; from here, it is compressed once by a single piston movement within a vacuum system. The power of this compression is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch) or Bar – the higher the PSI/Bar, the more power the compressor has. In a single stage air compressor, the air is typically compressed at a rate of around 120 PSI (8.2 Bar). After the air has been compressed, it is sent into the storage tank from where it is dispelled into various tools as a source of energy. Dual phase compressors operate the same way, except there are two stages of compression, rather than just one. After the first round of compression, the air is sent into a second chamber, where it is compressed for the second time, at a rate of around 175 PSI (12.1 Bar). After this, the air is sent to a storage tank in which it is cooled down and ready for application. Both types of compressor are typically powered by either an electric or petrol motor, which drives the piston and causes the compression to happen. Single Phase and Dual Phase Applications Both function in fundamentally the same way and can be used for similar tasks, such as operating a pneumatic drill or other high-powered tools such as those found in a manufacturing plant. Single phase compressors tend to be used within domestic settings for smaller workshop jobs done with handheld tools, such as woodwork, metal work and general DIY. Dual phase compressors, on the other hand, are better for larger scale work in operations such as operations needed in vehicle repair shops, pressing factories and other plants where parts are manufactured. Oil-Free vs. Oil-lubricated Air Compressors Another way to compare variable frequency air compressor is to look at whether they use oil or not – there are oil-free and oil-based / lubricated compressors and both are suited to slightly different jobs. For the air to be drawn into the chamber safely and effectively, the piston needs to be in top working order. To work properly, the piston must be lubricated with oil. With regards to lubrication, there are two main types of compressor to choose from: oil-free and oil-based. The oil is used on the cylinder to ensure the compression goes smoothly. The Difference Between Oil-Free and Oil-Based Compressors Oil-free air compressors already have a lubricated cylinder (often with a non-stick material such as Teflon) and therefore require no further maintenance to work properly. Oil-based compressors require oil to be added to the piston area and changed regularly. Just how often you need to change the oil will be outlined in the manufacturer’s manual that came with your compressor. On the whole, oil-free compressors tend to weigh a lot less than oil-based compressors, as not only do they not have the weight of the oil, but they are more compact machines, requiring fewer separate parts to make them work. Oil-free compressors, being less complex in design, also tend to be more affordable than oil-based compressors. However, although they’re more weighty and expensive, oil-based compressors have their benefits. For one thing, they are strong and durable, and usually have a longer lifespan than their oil-free counterparts. This is usually because over time the greasing material (usually Teflon) begins to wear down and lose its lubrication abilities. Another important factor that should be considered when choosing between an oil-free and oil-based compressor is that the oil-less version tends to heat up faster and to a higher temperature than those which use oil. Compressors without oil also make a lot more noise than those with, so if you want a less noisy workplace, this is a factor to consider too. Oil-Free and Oil-based Compressor Applications Oil-free compressors are a great option for those in need of a lightweight, low maintenance tool for home use. Oil-based compressors are better suited to heavy duty jobs and commercial and industrial use, as although they’re generally heavier and require more maintenance, they are also more robust and versatile. For industrial purposes and extensive, day-long use, oil-based compressors are by far the best option. If you’re looking to invest in quality compressors for your business, opting for oil-based machines is almost certainly the best route to take. Within an industrial or commercial setting, there are numerous uses for oil-based PM screw air compressor, including: Vehicle painting and repairs Sanding and woodwork Creating snow banks in ski centres Tools within dentistry and other medical environments Pneumatic construction tools such as nail guns Air cleaning tools such as blowguns Oil-free compressors can be used for domestic use, such as small-scale jobs like blowing up balloons, home workshop and DIY jobs. They are also largely used in industries where there is a need to avoid the product or consumer coming into contact with oil: food and beverage, pharmaceutical and dental, for example. In these sensitive applications, the consequences of having oil contamination in the air are too high to risk, so having an oil free compressor is a must. There is compressed air quality testing from the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) which oil-free technology can help you achieve. Fixed vs. Variable Air Compressors Another factor to consider when choosing the right type of air compressor for your industry is whether they’re equipped with fixed or variable speed. Let’s take a closer look at what these different types of compressor can do for you. The main difference between air compressors that use a fixed speed system and those that use variable speed is the manner in which the motor gets its power. The compression element is much the same across all machines, but the way the motor operates has an effect on the usability, efficiency and lifespan of the machine. How Do VSD Compressors Work? Variable speed compressors (often referred to as VSD (Variable Speed Drive) or VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) – compressors) operates by automatically adjusting the motor speed in accordance with the demand for air. This happens through a system that converts voltage from the mains power supply into a variable frequency. Power is drawn through a converter, inside which it is converted twice. First, it converts AC power into DC power using diodes. A capacitor then cleans the AC, and then converts it to DC using a transistor, which acts as switches. These switches control the frequency of power sent to the motor, which in turn controls the speed of the motor. A VSD air compressor contains this technology, allowing the speed of the motor and the amount of air compression used to be closely controlled. There are pros and cons to both variable speed compressors and their counterpart, fixed speed compressors – check them out below to decide which one is best for your industry. Fixed Speed Pros and Cons Fixed speed air compressors send a consistent, continuous stream of power into the motor, which gives you a reliable frequency in all your air compression jobs. The initial cost of fixed speed compressors is lower than that of variable speed compressors, is easier and cheaper to maintain and is a must-have within industries where the power demand is continuous. This type of compressor is, however, less efficient than its variable speed counterpart. It is also less efficient at saving energy, and can therefore be more expensive to run, with fewer incentives available too. Variable Speed Pros and Cons Variable speed air compressors allow you to control the voltage and the frequency of the power in the motor, giving the user more agency over the tool. This type of compressor is more efficient when it comes to power usage, as you can easily control your output and only use what you need. Many industries will find that this type of air compressor is ideal, as it can be used in line with the demand of the job. When less power is needed, you can easily adjust the speed of the compressor, saving money and protecting the environment at the same time. The downsides of a variable speed compressor are that there is a higher initial capital cost to pay, and maintenance and repairs are more expensive too. They are also not well suited to applications that require a continuous stream of power. Piston Compressors, Scroll Compressors & Rotary Screw Compressors So far in this article, all the compressors mentioned are operated using pistons, which is a generic system for one type of compressor – the scroll compressor, also known as a reciprocating air compressor. The other type is the rotary screw compressor, which doesn’t have pistons and operates in a slightly different way. Here’s a quick overview of how scroll compressors and rotary screw / reciprocating compressors work, and what the unique benefits are of each of them. Scroll Compressors Scroll compressors are a type of piston compressor, and are also called reciprocating compressors. These are the most common type of two stage air compressor, due to affordability and general availability. But how does a reciprocating air compressor work? The piston system works by having a piston travel downwards, decreasing the pressure inside its internal cylinder through the creation of a vacuum. The sudden change in pressure causes the door of the cylinder to be forced open, and draw air in. When the piston travels up again, the air is forced out of the cylinder at a much higher pressure point. This continues in a reciprocating, ‘scroll’ pattern, hence its name. Pros and Cons of Scroll Compressors Pros: Cools down quickly More efficient use of energy Cons: Higher initial capital cost More complex parts – harder to maintain Rotary Screw Compressors Rather than using pistons, rotary screw compressors rely on rollers to do the compression. Rollers are positioned just off the middle of the central shaft to ensure that one side of the roller is always in contact with the wall. The rollers are powered, rotating extremely fast, causing the same result as scroll compressors: they draw in air at a low pressure and force it out at a higher pressure. Pros and Cons of Rotary Screw Compressors Pros: Good power capacity Lower initial capital price Easy to maintain Cons: Limited cooling abilities Require continuous maintenance checks How Do Low Noise Air Compressors Work? One complaint often heard around air compressors is that some of them are noisy due to friction and a power source, which can be distracting and inconvenient for both commercial and domestic use. The industry has risen to deal with these complaints however, and there are several low noise air compressors to choose from, offering a decibel rating of around 40 dB. 40 dB is considered low noise; 60 dB is considered the safest decibel level for compressors; anything over 85 dB could cause long-lasting damage to your hearing, and you should avoid being exposed to this level for extended periods of time. Low noise and silent air compressors are available in both oil-free and oil-based versions, so just how is the silencing effect achieved? As well as choosing compressors with low decibel levels, one aspect of this technology that makes a big difference is the inclusion of an acoustic chamber for containing the noise. Another tip is to opt for electric-powered compressors, rather than gas-powered, as the former type of power source makes for a quieter machine. The Bottom Line Which type of air compressor you go for depends on a variety of factors. You first need to consider what application the compressors will be used for? Do you need it for continuous, ongoing use in large industrial machinery, or will it be used sporadically? Your answers to these questions will help you decide on whether to go for variable or fixed speed compressors. Another question that you must factor into your decision is: how much do you want to spend? Remember that the initial price of a quality compressor is not the only expense associated with a compressor; consider also the cost of the power needed to run the machine, plus any related ongoing maintenance and repair costs. How much time and energy will investing in high quality compressors save your company? These are all important calculations that should be made before making your decision. Get in touch below if you wish to find out more.  

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    鈽匫ur History Chongqing Hongmei Technology Co., Ltd. Located in Chongqing , China, Hongmei is one of the largest exporter of gasoline cultivator gasoline engine, gasoline water pump, gasoline generatorand diesel cultivator, diesel engine, diesel water pump, diesel generator etc since 2004, so we have rich experience in this field. 鈽匫ur Factory Our company covers 20000 square meters and has more than 250 workers, in 2020 year our sale exceeded seven million USD, in addition our production and management are all running strictly with the ISO90001 system. 鈽匫ur Certificate Most of our products are approved by CE and each component is produced according to European Union Rohs Standard. 鈽匬roduction Market All of our products are widely sold over the world and get the high reputation, such as Europe, Asia, Middle East, America, Africa, etc. 鈽匫ur Service Before-sale services 1. 24 hours online, Your inquiry will be reply quickly. 2. Help you choose the most suitable machine 3. Introduce details of the machine for you with pictures or video. Sales service 1. Customized machine according to your request. 2. Test and inspect every machine with strict quality control. 3.Packing with standard export wooden box after you confirm the machine After-sales service 1. Offer the professional engineer help you to use the machine. 2. Offer technical support and professional engineer help you solve problems while using it. 3. Quality guarantee for two years. Free repair for quality problem during these years.3 Inch Sewage Diesel Water Pump suppliers website:

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    Why Hot Foil Stamping Helps Packaging To Shine Differentiation. It’s what every brand owner wants for their product, but in increasingly crowded markets, it is becoming harder and harder to achieve. Brand owners know that packaging is the key differentiator on the shelf, and special finishing techniques – such hot foil stamping and thermal embossing – can elevate their product compared to others, and provide consumers with a visual shortcut to the quality of what’s inside. Hot foil stamping is the process of using heat and pressure to apply metallic foil or holograms to materials such as light papers, carton board, laminated board, plastics and corrugated board. “In a world where we have very mature markets with limited opportunity for major growth, there is no question that products need to differentiate themselves somehow,” said Jacques Reymond, head of product marketing Business Unit Sheet-fed at BOBST. “Hot foil stamping helps to reinforce the value to the product and is often associated with premium products. Ultimately, the box is a marketing instrument, and by using hot foil stamping, you can convey the quality of what it inside.” The term can encompass simple flat foil stamping, deep embossing or embossing combined with foil stamping, hologram and holographic foil application and foil stamping combined with micro & structural embossing. Traditionally, gold or silver are the most common colors used for foiling, but a wide range of colored foils are available. Application across industries Hot foil stamping is used across a wide range of industry sectors, but most notably in food and drink (particularly confectionary such as premium chocolate, wine and liquor bottles, and other premium foods), cosmetics, electronics, banknotes, business cards, greeting cards and art work. There is no doubt about the value of embellishments like cold stamping foil. According to a study by the Foil & Specialty Effects Association (FSEA), hot foil stamping and other similar enhancements on product packaging can help attract consumer attention faster and keep attention longer than ordinary packaging. In another study of disposable single-serve coffee packaging, the packaging with gold foil attracted the study participants’ attention 2.5 times faster than the control packaging. It’s not just about looking good. Hot foil stamping is also used for its anti-counterfeiting properties, particularly in pharmaceuticals, and in technology such as smart phones. The stamp of sustainability Sustainability is becoming an even bigger priority for brand owners and is in itself a means of differentiation. Many assume that packaging with foil is not recyclable and therefore not sustainable, but a study by the FSEA on the recyclability and re-pulpability of foil-decorated stock and board validated the recyclability of paper products decorated by the traditional hot stamp foil processes. In addition, the study found that neither hot nor cold foil-decorated products would give rise to problems that may render the decorated paper products unsuitable for recycling. How is hot foil stamping evolving? Hot foil stamping has been around in one form or another for well over 100 years. The process itself has not changed dramatically in that time, but the technology is evolving and enabling better efficiency for manufacturers. A hot foil stamper may be an offline, stand-alone machine, or may be in line with a printing press and/or other units. While mainly sheet-fed, some high-speed hot foil stampers are web-fed. Whether sheet or web-fed, sophisticated handling systems are needed to position the substrate and foil between the plate or cylinder that holds the dies and that supplying the counter pressure. “These machines have seen some remarkable advances in recent years,” said Jacques Reymond. “For example, normally, hot stamping foil for paper requires several passes through the machine – the printing, then the enhancement, then the cutting. That’s a lot of movement on the sheet registration. But BOBST integrated a power register in MASTERFOIL 106 PR that overcame that. We are always looking to evolve.” Reymond is referring to POWER REGISTER 2, which delivers perfect foil-to-print register in MASTERFOIL 106 PR, a hot foil stamper from BOBST associated with the highest quality. It is also packed with  clever features like lower beam cam movement, which allows for longer impressions and higher foiling quality, or a foil unwind system that makes changing foils as easy as pressing a button. BOBST: The hot foil stamping pioneers With more than fifty years of experience in the design and manufacture of foil stamping machines, BOBST has constantly been at the forefront of advances in this technology. From the BOBST SP 1260 BM of the 1960s, through to today’s highly sophisticated equipment, flat bed BOBST presses have pushed forward the boundaries of the hot stamping foil for plastic process. “With over fifty years’ experience in the hot foil stamping market, and several thousand installations worldwide, BOBST is a pioneer in the area,” said Jacques Reymond. “We are well known for providing equipment that is long lasting, and made for high productivity, precision and quality. And we never get complacent; we are always moving forward, always looking to the future to find new ways to improve productivity for our customers.” Conclusion While hot foil stamping isn’t the only form of differentiation for packaging – cold foil, varnishes and metal inks are just three examples of other great visual embellishments – it is a steadily growing sector that is here to stay. Simply put, the effect will always appeal on packaging and provide a visual shortcut to the quality of the product inside. Foil stamping can be tricky business, and certain types of inks, stocks, and stamping surfaces can add to the challenge. . This article contains a sampling of information contained in the guide as it relates specifically to difficult-to-stamp surfaces, as well as additional information on the subject gathered by InsideFinishing. What common signs indicate that the ink is not dry enough for foil stamping? What are the suggested solutions? If the ink on the printed sheet does not have time to properly dry and an operator begins to foil stamp, many times the foil product itself will begin to smear when a finger is passed along the print area. If an operator can see ink from the sheet appear on the polyester film carrier after the image has been stamped, that is another sign of a sheet that is not completely dry. In addition, when the ink offsets onto the sheet below on the feed table or on the feed table rollers, it is a sure-fire sign that the ink is not ready for foil stamping application. The solution when working with wet ink is to simply allow the proper drying time before stamping. If these problems are occurring, the operator should double check with the printer that wax-free inks were used on the job. If the inks were not wax-free, or if rubber-based inks were used, the job will be very difficult or impossible to stamp over the litho. To assist with helping the sheets dry faster, reduce the pile height to smaller stacks and allow air to flow through the pile. If there is little or no time to allow the sheets to dry on their own, they can be sent through a dryer of some type, such as a UV tunnel. Remember that black and dark blue are two of the most difficult inks to dry. Also, if a great deal of black coverage exists, it is recommended that the black be printed with one or two colors. Try to stay away from process black – this will take much longer to dry. What problems can occur with foil stamping over UV coatings or varnishes? What can be done to work with these problems on press? The most common side effect of trying to foil stamp on a UV surface is a shark-tooth appearance at the edges of the foil stamped image. The main reason this occurs is a coated surface with less than the required dyne level to accept the foil. UV also causes problems when silicone is added to the UV. This, too, can cause a shark-tooth appearance on the foil stamped image. If there is a significant amount of silicone in the coating, then there is very little you can do to get the foil to adhere to this surface. The silicone will create a slick surface and simply not allow the foil to adhere. However, if the cause of the coating problem is the lack of a proper dyne level, there are several possible solutions. First, the operator should check the dyne level by utilizing a set of dyne pens that measures the surface tension of the sheet. To foil stamp or glue, the dyne level must be at least 38 and even a bit higher for a good quality stamp. If the dyne level is not at 38 or higher, one solution is to corona treat the sheets through an off-line corona treatment system. The corona treatment will change the molecular make up of the coating on the sheet and raise the dyne level to a proper level for stamping. Another solution is to texture the foil stamping die or the substrate. This can be accomplished by asking the die supplier to sandblast the stamping die before it is shipped. The operator also can place a piece of sandpaper on the make ready board with the grit facing the die, make several impressions without the foil product, move the sandpaper into a new position, followed by several more impressions. This will create a sandblasted effect on the die. The texturing of the die will help relieve trapped air on the sheet surface and should allow the foil to adhere without trapping air. Remember that texturing the die will dull the foil and create a satin look even with a bright metallic foil. There are other steps that can be taken to help relieve trapped air on the coated surface. Dome the makeready to allow any gas or trapped air that has built up between the coating and the die to escape more easily from the center and flow to the edges of the foil stamped image. Also, make sure that the operator is utilizing a foil product that is formulated for UV surfaces or surfaces with lower dyne levels. This will help ensure a higher quality stamp, especially if the dyne level is hovering around the 38 level or a little below. Last, satin foils seem to perform better on UV or varnished surfaces. Consider going with a satin gold if the customer will allow it. What precautions should be taken when applying foil over foil? Often when an application includes foil stamping one foil over another foil, the operator is apt to be lax in his concern on press, taking for granted that all hot stamping foils are easily overstampable. This is simply not the case. If the foil is beginning to pick or uneven coverage is occurring on the second pass of foil, it is a clear sign that there is a problem. Specific hot stamping foils are manufactured to be overstampable, but some formulations are not. It is very important to check this before beginning a job where one foil will be applied over another. However, this may not be the only reason for a potential application challenge. If the first foil stamping pass was stamped with too much impression strength or a soft makeready board, this will leave a deep groove around the image and the operator may have problems with coverage on the second pass. It’s possible that a visible indented line will show where the second pass of foil stamps over the top of the first. This can be prevented by using a hard makeready board such as epoxy glass board. This will allow the first foil to be applied with less pressure, keeping the first pass from being stamped too far into the stock. Another problem can occur with overstamping if the first pass was applied at a temperature that is too low. If this occurs, it can leave a residual wax release coat on the surface of the image area. This will make the second foil pass adhesion very difficult. It is recommended that the operator run the first pass of foil at a fairly high temperature, higher than usual, to make sure that the wax release coat is completely removed, creating a more suitable stamping surface for the final stamped image. Foil stamping on plastic sheeting continues to be a popular application. What are some of the precautions that should be taken when hot stamping foil for label plastic on a plastic surface? As with difficult-to-stamp coatings, the first steps when foil stamping on plastic are making sure that the plastic has been properly treated and has a dyne level above 38. Without pre-treating the plastic sheet first, the problems with ‘shark toothing’ or pin-holes will occur when trying to stamp. Just as there are a variety of foils for various types of paper stock, there are specific adhesive formulations for plastic. The foil stamper needs to check with its foil supplier and order a foil product specifically formulated for plastics – a graphics foil will not be a good choice for these applications. Because plastic can cause more problems with gassing or air entrapment than most paper stocks, utilizing a cylinder-style machine to apply the foil is a good option, if available. Applying the foil through a cylinder foil stamping machine will allow the foil to be laid across the plastic sheet. This stamping action differs from the vertical platen style machines that press the hot stamping die directly into the substrate, thereby trapping air. Another advantage with the cylinder-style machines is that the rolling action also can help keep the plastic from overheating and melting during the foil stamping process. Utilizing a hard make ready, such as epoxy glass board, is a good choice for plastic sheets. This will help to keep the die from penetrating too far into the sheet, which can leave an outline on the back of the sheet. In addition, a domed makeready is recommended to help squeeze out any air or gasses that might be trapped between the die and the sheet. This is especially important with a larger flat stamp image area.

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    cash box placing is a method of raising cash from the issue of equity securities structured as an issue of shares for non-cash consideration. This allows companies to issue shares without seeking any shareholder consent or convening a general meeting and is very useful for a company that needs to raise funds quickly.  It allows for an issue when there is either none or not sufficient disapplication of pre-emption rights authority and enables a larger issue than would be authorised by a standard disapplication, although a general authority to allot shares is still required. In addition, this structure may allow distributable reserves to be created by using merger relief. Note that this is in addition to the usual general authority required by the directors to allot shares The issuer issues shares in exchange for the transfer to it of redeemable preference shares in a special purpose subsidiary. The only material asset of the subsidiary is the cash paid to it upon a subscription of shares by an investment bank (or broker). The bank/broker funds the subscription price for the preference shares from the proceeds of the placing of the company's equity securities. Whilst avoiding the pre-emption rules is one of the key advantages to a cash box placing, it also helps avoid the costs of producing and distributing a circular (where applicable) and notice of meeting, the delay in waiting for the requisite resolutions to be passed and the risk that the resolutions might not be passed. How does the structure work? The issuer incorporates a new company (Newco), most likely in Jersey, which will be established with par value ordinary shares and par value fixed rate redeemable preference shares (see section Why Jersey? below for further information). The issuer's investment bank or broker will subscribe for some of the Newco ordinary shares (usually in excess of 10%) and the issuer will hold the balance of the Newco ordinary shares (which must be below 90% if merger relief is required). Conditional on the issuer's new ordinary shares being listed or admitted to trading on AIM, the bank/broker will agree to subscribe for Newco redeemable preference shares at an aggregate price equal to the net placing proceeds (less commissions and other expenses in respect of the placing) and will undertake to pay to Newco the subscription price for those shares. At the same time as step 3, the issuer will agree to allot new ordinary shares to placees selected by the bank/broker in consideration for the transfer to the issuer of the Newco ordinary shares and preference shares held by the bank/broker. Placees pay the placing price for the new ordinary shares to the bank/broker as principal and the bank/broker will use the placing proceeds to discharge its undertaking to pay the subscription price for the preference shares in Newco. Once the issuer becomes 100% shareholder of Newco (following steps 4 and 5), the issuer is free to extract the cash sitting in Newco by way of a loan, declaring dividends, redemption of the preference shares or a liquidation of Newco. There will normally be a put and call option agreement in place between the issuer and the bank (or broker). In the event the placing does not proceed for whatever reason, a put and call option agreement will enable the bank/broker to transfer to the issuer the ordinary shares it holds in Newco. What is it? A large cash box structure or placing is a method used by a plc to raise funds quickly from institutional investors, like a book safe. It is a cheaper method of raising funds than a more traditional placing of shares, rights issue or plain vanilla debt financing.  Why use one? The principal benefits of using a Jersey cash box structure are as follows: • the statutory pre-emption provisions contained in the UK Companies Act 2006 (the Companies Act) do not apply where a Jersey cash box structure is used as the shares issued by a UK plc (UK plc) are issued for a non-cash consideration. This avoids the time and expense of seeking shareholder approval to disapply the statutory pre-emption rights or otherwise conducting a pre-emptive rights issue; • the use of a Jersey money cash box structure may allow UK plc to create distributable reserves (rather than share premium) following the issuance of new ordinary shares by taking advantage of the merger relief provisions under the Companies Act; and • investment banks and brokers find these structures very appealing as they keep underwriting risk and documentation to a minimum but at the same time maintain good commission levels.  How does it work? • UK plc incorporates a Jersey private company as the “cash box” (Jersey NewCo). Jersey NewCo will usually be managed, controlled and tax resident in the UK therefore ensuring that HM Treasury consent is not required with regard to the issue or transfer of Jersey NewCo shares; • Jersey NewCo issues redeemable preference shares to a manager (such as an underwriter or placing bank) (the Manager) pursuant to a share subscription and transfer agreement. The redeemable preference shares are fully paid up, with the Manager using placing proceeds received from investors identified by the Manager (the Investors) (at this point, Jersey NewCo becomes the “cash box”), like a key box. If merger relief under the Companies Act is to be availed of (i.e. relief from the creation of a share premium account on the issue of shares) the majority of the ordinary shares of Jersey NewCo will be held by UK plc and the remaining amount will be held by the Manager; • the Manager pursuant to the share subscription and transfer agreement transfers all its shares held in Jersey NewCo to UK plc in exchange for UK plc issuing shares to the Investors. Therefore UK plc has issued shares for a non-cash consideration (i.e. in exchange for receiving the shares in Jersey NewCo) and, as such, avoids the statutory pre-emption provisions of the Companies Act. UK plc now holds all the issued share capital in Jersey NewCo and Jersey NewCo holds all the placing proceeds; and • UK plc has several options now to recuperate the placing proceeds. Jersey NewCo can redeem the shares held by UK plc (typically for an amount equal to the placing proceeds), lend the placing proceeds to UK plc or distribute the placing proceeds to UK plc upon Jersey NewCo’s solvent winding-up.

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    Seeing the joy on a loved one’s face when they’re handed a gift is one of the most rewarding moments. If you’re looking to wow your family and friends the minute they receive your gift, then a little creative gift wrapping is just what you need. Luckily, it doesn’t take much time, skill or money—once you have a few gift wrapping ideas. To offer you inspiration for your Christmas, birthday or holiday gifts, we’ve created a collection of over 20 gift wrapping ideas. From simple ribbon techniques to gift-wrapping masterpieces, we have something for everyone. And if you’re still looking for extra special presents for you loved ones, make sure to check out our personalized gifts. 1. Recycle In Style Design your own festive gift wrap from a material you already have: paper shopping bags. Make the project easier by choosing bags from stores that issue holiday patterns. Add colorful ribbon or string to your gift for extra personality. 2. Tea Towel Wrap Choose a gift wrap idea that also doubles as a gift: a tea towel. Bundle a bottle of wine, olive oil, sauce or balsamic vinegar for a present that will go straight to the kitchen. 3. Colorful Hodgepodge Gather your paints, paintbrushes, and sponges. Use white or solid colored paper as your base and sprinkle on all of your favorite colors in any shapes you want. Your gifts will be dressed full of character and personality. 4. Baked Goods Cardcoard Boxes Take empty cardboard candle boxes from rolls of parchment paper or foil. Paint them with festive colors and designs for decorative baked good gift package boxes or other food gift ideas. 5. Holiday Lights Christmas lights aren’t just for hanging on your roof. Cut open brown paper bags to create your wrapping material. Then, draw or paint a set of holiday lights on the paper for a jolly feel. 6. Paper Bows Cut bow shapes out of colored cardboard construction paper. Use an online printable for a cutting guide or make your own stencil. For a tasty twist to this project, fill the centers with a teaspoon of sprinkles. 7. Add A Tag Dress up brown paper gift wrap with fine string or ribbon. Add a gold foil holiday tag for a gift special box wrapping design that looks polished and professional. 8. Washi Tape Weave Washi tape isn’t just for home decor. You can use it to dress up your gift wrapping, too. Create a layered effect by weaving the tape horizontally and vertically in an alternating pattern. 9. 3D Wrapping Wrapping gifts for your kids, grandchildren or nephews? Create your own interactive gift wrap by gluing on their favorite toys like cars, crayons or building blocks. 10. Origami Bows Add a little fun to your gift wrapping project by designing bows out of origami paper. Fold several at a time so you have a stock of bows to use throughout the year. 11. Silver Detailing Wrap your gift in plain brown paper, then use a lustrous silver pen to add details. Draw geometrical shapes, snowflakes or simple lines to accentuate your package. 12. Using box to contain the gift For different kinds of gift, there are watch boxPVC boxfood boxperfume boxcosmetic box, etc.

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    Grow Lights for Indoor Plants and Indoor Gardening: An Overview Warm vs cool? "Full-spectrum?" LED, CFL, or HID? Here's what you need to know about mars grow light for starting seeds, gardening inside, or houseplants. Indoor growing offers many advantages. The biggest benefits are the most obvious: garden pests can’t get at your plants, and you have total control over the weather. Yet unless you’re lucky enough to have a solarium or greenhouse attached to your home, providing sufficient light to your plants will likely be an obstacle (shade-tolerant houseplants excepted). South-facing windows may provide enough light for a tray or two of seedlings, but if you want to grow vegetables, or any other sun-loving plants, to maturity, you’re going to need LED grow light bar. The indoor lighting found in most homes does little to support photosynthesis. Traditional incandescent bulbs do not have the proper spectrum of light, or intensity, to supplant the sun. Household fluorescent bulbs can make effective grow lights, but only if they are placed in within a few inches of the foliage and left on for 16 hours per day – not ideal. When shopping for indoor led grow lights, you’ll notice they are labeled with numbers like 2700K or 4000K. This refers to their relative warmth or coolness on the color spectrum – the higher the number, the cooler the light. Foliage growth is generally best around 6500K, though many plants need a period of warmer light, around 3000K, in order to produce flowers, and thus fruit. In other words, if your goal is to simply produce seedlings, leafy green vegetables, or root crops, you only need higher spectrum bulbs. If you want to grow flowers, marijuana, or any fruiting plant (cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lemons, etc.), you’ll also require low spectrum bulbs. You can some types of bulbs are available in full-spectrum form, however, simplifying things. The standard fluorescent bulb, commonly denoted T12, makes a decent grow light for houseplants, starting seeds, supplementing the natural light of a window, and other situations where lighting needs are modest. They are fairly weak in light intensity, however, and must be placed within a few inches of the foliage to have much of an effect. , which are narrower in diameter than T12s (but still widely available wherever lightbulbs are sold), have a much higher light intensity, making them suitable as a sole light source for sun-loving plants. Compact fluorescent bulbs (CFLs) are an option for small spaces, or if you don’t like the look of long rectangular fluorescent light fixtures – CFLs will screw into an ordinary incandescent light fixture. Look for specialized full-spectrum fluorescent grow bulbs (like this , or , which fits into a standard socket) to provide the right balance of light for flowering plants. While they are considerably more expensive than fluorescent bulbs, LEDs use half the electricity and last five times longer, more than paying for themselves in the long run. The average LED bulb from the hardware store is not designed for plant growth, however – you need special , a relatively new technology that is increasingly available from horticultural suppliers. LED grow bulbs are capable of much greater light intensity than fluorescent bulbs and are available in full-spectrum form. An easy rule of thumb: Fluorescent bulbs are often used when growing just a handful of plants; LEDs are preferable for larger quantities since you can achieve higher light intensity per square foot. Another advantage of LEDs? They produce very little heat compared to other bulbs – an issue that can become problematic when you have a lot of lights in a small space. HID Grow Lights Before the advent of LED grow lights, were the main option for large indoor plantings. They are extremely powerful, but are expensive to purchase, consume electricity inefficiently, require special light fixtures, and give off a lot of heat. All that said, they are very effective and are still widely used. If you want to grow large plants like tomatoes or lemon bushes, HIDs are good bet because the light penetrates farther into the foliage than with other bulbs. There are two types of HID bulbs. High-pressure sodium (HPS) bulbs are best for flowering (low spectrum), while MH (metal halide) bulbs are required to support vegetative growth (high spectrum); the two types are often used in conjunction. Unfortunately, each type requires its own fixture. How to Install Weed Grow Lights Installation requirements vary drastically depending on the scope of your indoor garden and the type of bulb used. But here are a few basic steps to get you started. Figure out how many bulbs you need. Most edible plants require at least 30 watts per square foot, but fruiting species (like tomatoes) generally won’t produce abundant high-quality crops without 40 to 50 watts per square foot. Wattage is always indicated on the bulb package. Simply multiply the square footage of your growing area by the number of watts you plan to provide (between 30 and 50); then divide by the number of watts supplied by the bulbs you plan to use. Devise a light rack. You’ll need a way to support the bulbs over the plants at the proper height. And unless you’re growing something that will remain at more or less the same height throughout its lifespan, you’ll also need a way to raise the light rack as the plants grow. This is usually accomplished through some sort of pulley system or by hanging the light fixtures with metal chain – that way you can easily adjust the height by changing the link the light fixture is home from. are also available for purchase online. Add the necessary accoutrements. It is generally wise to plug your lights into a timer to ensure they get the proper amount of light, and that they get it at the same time each day. are available for indoor growing, though a standard also works. If your lights bring the temperature above 80 degrees or so in your growing area, install a ventilation system to prevent heat stress. Aficionados make use of reflectors and all sorts of other grow light accessories to achieve optimum results. How Long Should I Leave Grow Lights On? Plants grown indoors require more hours of light than those grown outdoors. 14 to 18 hours of light per day is recommended for most edible species when grown under artificial lighting. Don’t be tempted to leave the lights on 24-7, however – at least six hours of darkness each day is essential to plant health. As the plants grow, raise the light fixture accordingly to maintain the optimal distance, which varies depending on the type of bulb used and its wattage (the higher the wattage. As a self-confessed science geek I am fascinated by technology. Yet in the world of gardening this is often synonymous with the gimmicky (fibreglass meerkat solar light, anyone?) or the hugely complex and costly – think hydroponic growers that require a degree in electrical engineering to install. So it was with trepidation that I started experimenting with vegetable grow light last winter in my tiny flat. Nine months down the line I am a total convert, eulogising about them to all my gardening mates. They are something I feel could be a gamechanger to many modern gardeners, if we could only get over our preconceptions. This is why… Once upon a time grow lamps were massive, ungainly things – fluorescent tubes more than a metre long that required complex and hideous systems of stands, cables and reflectors. They were real power guzzlers, too, so not exactly great for the planet, or your wallet – which would already have taken a pretty eye-watering hit from the price of all the kit. They even kicked out quite a bit of heat, which apart from raising safety issues, could also damage the very plants you were trying to grow. However, recent breakthroughs in LED technology have created a new generation of effective, cool-running grow lights that cost a fraction of the old-school behemoths both to buy and to run, consuming (according to some manufacturers) 90% less energy. Crucially, they have shrunk down enough to be easily incorporated into average living room decor, some seamlessly integrated into planter-cum-lamp designs. Others are light and thin enough to be fixed pretty much invisibly into standard flat-pack shelves, turning existing pieces of furniture in my house into instant growing units. These LED lights are becoming increasingly widely available online and even at a certain Scandinavian home store. But why bother in the first place? Surely part of the pleasure of getting out in the garden is to escape the relentless march of technology into every aspect of our lives. Well, here’s what my little experiment has done for me: I was able to grow houseplants in parts of my dark, urban flat that I never could before. This is a huge bonus to an obsessive plant collector like me, and could make an even more dramatic difference to houseplant lovers in basement or north-facing flats where lack of light is a serious issue. Also, come spring seed sowing, I started off a good six weeks or so earlier and got zero etiolation on my baby plants. Stronger plants, much earlier, meant I got a bumper harvest of tomatoes and chillies weeks ahead of time. And all of this for the cost of a couple of desk lamps than run on minimal power. Brilliant! Tens of millions have placed their trust in the Guardian’s high-impact journalism since we started publishing 200 years ago, turning to us in moments of crisis, uncertainty, solidarity and hope. More than 1.5 million readers, from 180 countries, have recently taken the step to support us financially – keeping us open to all, and fiercely independent. With no shareholders or billionaire owner, we can set our own agenda and provide trustworthy journalism that’s free from commercial and political influence, offering a counterweight to the spread of misinformation. When it’s never mattered more, we can investigate and challenge without fear or favour. Unlike many others, Guardian journalism is available for everyone to read, regardless of what they can afford to pay. We do this because we believe in information equality. Greater numbers of people can keep track of global events, understand their impact on people and communities, and become inspired to take meaningful action. We aim to offer readers a comprehensive, international perspective on critical events shaping our world – from the Black Lives Matter movement, to the new American administration, Brexit, and the world's slow emergence from a global pandemic. We are committed to upholding our reputation for urgent, powerful reporting on the climate emergency, and made the decision to reject advertising from fossil fuel companies, divest from the oil and gas industries, and set a course to achieve net zero emissions by 2030. If there were ever a time to join us, it is now. Every contribution, however big or small, powers our journalism and sustains our future. Support the Guardian from as little as $1 – it only takes a minute. If you can, please consider supporting us with a regular amount each month. Thank you.  

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    Zara Chowdhary

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    Valves 101: Types of Ball Valves Ball valves are a type of piping equipment that shuts off or controls the flow in a pipeline by using a hollow sphere and round seats held in a valve body. There are two basic technologies for the design of ball valves, floating ball design and trunnion mounted ball design. The major components of a ball valve include: Valve body – A pressure vessel that contains the components needed to control or shut off the flow through a pipe. It is designed to connect two or more sections of pipe or tubing to each other. Ball – A sphere with a flow path (hole or tunnel) through the center of it and a connection point for a shaft to rotate it. Seats – Round donut-shaped discs that form a seal between the body and ball. Stem – A shaft that connects the internal ball to the outside of the valve to facilitate rotation of the ball. Packing – Flexible seals that fit around the shaft and prevent the media traveling through the valve from escaping externally. Bonnet – The part of the valve body that houses the stem and packing. Operator or Actuator – An external device designed to rotate the stem of the valve. This can be a lever, a gear, a motor-operated gear (electric actuator), or a pneumatic/hydraulic actuator. Floating Ball Design A floating ball valve sandwiches the hollow ball between two or more cupped seats that form a tight seal between the body and the ball at the inlet and outlet ports of the valve body. The ball is rotated (usually 90 degrees) by a shaft that protrudes outside of the valve body and is connected to some form of operator. For this reason, most ball valves are referred to as quarter-turn valves. This shaft is not rigidly attached to the ball in order for the ball to pivot on the end of the shaft as it rotates on the axis of the ball. This is usually accomplished with a slot on top of the ball, perpendicular to the ball’s flow path. The cupped portion of the seats cradle the ball prevents it from moving down in the valve body. The valve packing prevents the media from escaping the valve body through the stem opening in the bonnet. The most common type of packing today is chevron v-ring type packing. If you look at the cross section profile of this packing, it resembles the letter “V”. The outer diameter of the packing matches the bore of the bonnet. The inside diameter matches the outer diameter of the stem. Multiple rings of this packing are stacked on top of each other and the stem is inserted through the packing. A packing gland on top of the bonnet pushes down on the top of the “V” and causes the packing to expand and seals agains the stem and bonnet. Trunnion Mounted Ball Design The trunnion design ball valve works nearly the same way as the floating ball except the seats are spring loaded against the ball and the ball does not pivot. The ball only rotates on its axis in this design. In the trunnion mounted ball valve, the ball utilizes a second shaft and bearing on the bottom of the ball. This stem or “post” holds the bottom of the valve in place. The top of the ball is not slotted and the upper stem is rigidly attached to the ball. This prevents the ball from moving into the downstream seat. Since the ball does not move into the seats, the seats must move towards the ball. Springs behind the seat push them tightly into the ball in order to make the seal. Trunnion valves are very effective at sealing off very low pressures that would not be strong enough to move a floating ball into the downstream seat. They are also required on large diameter valves and high-pressure valves. The reason for this is the contact area of the seats in a floating ball is relatively small. From physics, we know force = Pressure x Area. The force on the downstream seat in a floating ball is derived from the process pressure in the upstream pipe pushing on the solid area of the ball in the closed position. If the pressure is high or the area is large, the downstream seat will be destroyed. The tradeoff is that trunnion valves are much more expensive than floating ball designs. Both floating ball and trunnion designs are available as multi-port valves by using elaborate flow paths in the ball and additional ports in the body. Are you looking for ball valves for your facility? Our team has years of experience in selecting the perfect valve for any application. Contact us today to discuss your specific valve needs! How It Works: Gate Valves All valves are designed to stop, allow, or throttle the flow of a process fluid. Gate valves—one of the original valve designs—are ideally suited for on-off, primarily liquid, service. A gate valve functions by lifting a rectangular or circular gate out of the path of the fluid. When the valve is fully open, gate valves are full bore, meaning there is nothing to obstruct the flow because the gate and pipeline diameter have the same opening. This bore diameter also determines the valve size. An advantage of this fullbore design is very low friction loss, which saves energy and reduces total cost of ownership. Gate and segment There are four primary designs for gate valves. Slab gate valves comprise a single gate unit that raises and lowers between two seat rings and are primarily used for transporting crude oil and NGLs. The G4N fabricated gate valve in the GROVE valves portfolio and the WKM Saf-T-Seal slab gate valve are ideal choices for this application. Expanding gate valves include two units—a gate and segment—in contrast with slab gate valves, which have one unit. The gate and segment units collapse against each other for travel and separate when the valve is fully opened or fully closed to affect a mechanical seal. Wedge gate valves are engineered with a tapered gate with metal-to-metal sealing. In contrast with a slab or expanding gate valve, wedge gate valves are not piggable because of the void that is left in the bottom of the valve body when the valve is open. These valves do not have a bore through the gate itself; instead, the gate retracts into the valve body when open, which saves height space. Knife gate valves are used to cut through extremely thick fluids and dry bulk solids. The design of this valve makes it inherently self cleaning because the knife is cleared of abrasives with each stroke as it passes the seat rings and skirts. The gate unit of this type of valve is thin compared with other gate valve types and is guided in place by the water-type body that sandwiches the gate. Stem Gate valves can have a rising or nonrising stem design. Rising stems are attached directly to the gate and provide a visual indicator of the valve position. Nonrising stems are generally threaded into the upper part of the gate and have a pointer threaded onto the top to indicate position. Nonrising stem designs are ideally suited for applications where vertical space is limited, in well applications, and where scraping or pigging is not required. Gate valves are designed with a sealing unit to provide a tight seal around the stem. Our patented single loaded-spring (SLS) stem seal design, used in Saf-T-Seal slab gate valves and WKM Pow-R-Seal double expanding gate valves, provides superior leak protection and a self-adjusting seal designed to reduce maintenance. Cast Steel Flanged Gate Valve Cast Steel Flanged Gate Valve Suitable to fit between PN16, ANSI 150 or ANSI 300 flanges Designed for industrial applications Cast Steel body with bolted bonnet End connection: Flanged PN16, ANSI 150 or ANSI 300 Sizes 2" to 8" and 2" to 10" Temperature range: -29°C to 425°C. Pressure rating: PN20, Class 150 or Class 300 Our Cast Steel Flanged Gate Valve is suitable to fit between PN6, PN10/16 or ANSI 150 flanges (subject to configuration) and designed for industrial applications; boiler plants and rugged environments where a more durable valve is required. A handwheel operated manual gate valve with Cast Steel body, bolted bonnet and non rising stem. Cast Steel gate valve is used as efficient shut-off valves with flow in either direction for water, saturated steam, air, gas and oil. The Main Types of Forged Steel Gate Valves The main role of forged steel gate valve in the pipeline is to cut off, is a very wide application of a valve, the general diameter DN ≤ 50 cut off the device selected this forged steel gate valve. When the valve is fully open, the sealing surface eroded by the medium is smaller than globe valve. Shape is relatively simple, casting process is better. So, what types are forged steel gate valve? According to the gate construction to classify. Parallel forged steel gate valve, sealing surface is parallel to the vertical center line. In the parallel type of forged steel gate valve, some valves install wedge, there are also between the gate with a spring, the spring can produce preload, is conducive to the gate of the seal. Wedge forged steel gate valve, sealing surface and the vertical center line create into a certain angle, that is, two sealing surface into a wedge-shaped forged steel gate valve. Generally, the higher the working temperature, the greater the angle, to reduce the possibility of wedging when the temperature changes. All About Globe Valves Globe valves are mainly used to regulate and to stop fluid flow through pipes. They differ from valves such as ball valves and gate valves in that they are specifically designed to govern fluid flow and are not limited to shut-off service. Globe valves are so named because older designs exhibited something of a globular body and could be divided into two hemispheres separated by an equator, where the flow changes direction. The actual internal element that closes against the seat is not usually spherical (as in a ball valve) but more typically flat, semi-spherical, or plug shaped. Globe valves, when opened, are more restrictive to fluid flow than gate or ball valves, resulting in higher pressure drops through them. Globe valves are available in three main body configurations, some of which are intended to reduce the pressure drop through the valve. How It Works: Check Valves Check valves, also known as nonreturn or one-way valves, enable fluid to flow one way in a pipeline. A clapper hangs from a hinge, clapper shaft, or pin mounted to the underside of the bonnet. This design inhibits backflow in a line. Because of their simple design, check valves generally operate without automation or human interaction and instead rely on the flow velocity of the fluid to open and close. This means they do not have a method of outside operation like a handle or lever. The minimum upstream pressure required to operate the valve is called the cracking pressure, generally between 1 and 5 psi. Check valves are designed specifically with this number in mind. The degree of opening on a check valve is determined by the flow rate. The higher the flow rate, the more open the valve will be until it reaches its maximum, full-open position. On many check valves, the full open position is approximately 85°. Plug type valve Plug valves are valves with cylindrical or conically tapered "plugs" which can be rotated inside the valve body to control flow through the valve. The plugs in plug valves have one or more hollow passageways going sideways through the plug, so that fluid can flow through the plug when the valve is open.

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    Our History We have our own R&D team, and we have strict standards for product development, production, inspection and delivery. Over 8 years of experience gives us the edge! Our Factory We has multiple tests from material purchasing to finished products by different departments, like QA, QC, sales representative, to guarantee all products are in perfect condition before shipment. We also accept the inspection by the third party you appointed. Our Product We are the manufacturer for lcd monitor, self kiosk, advertising player, advertising display, bar lcd and wall mount display with over 8 years experience of producing products. Product Application Our products have a wide range of applications, such as retail, catering and public services. Production Equipment We have an automated production line and a production-free workshop that greatly reduces production time, we provide OEM/ODM services to our customers worldwide. Production Market Our products have small hand areas all over the world, any place can become our customers. Our Service Our professional technical team can quickly provide pre-sales and after-sales service. and we have full experience in construction, our engineer team is integration of theory and practice. China Wall Mount Digital Display For Advertising manufacturers website: website2:

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    The Importance Of Home Appliance In Daily Life Home appliances play a major role in the domestic life of the modern man. It has always had a significant place in the life of man ever since the Stone Age when man began to use tools. Today, twenty-first-century human beings use more sophisticated tools and home appliances for his/her daily life. The more we try to make our life convenient and comfortable, the more significant the role of appliances turns out to be in determining the lifestyle of a man. Home appliances are electrical/mechanical appliances which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning. Household appliances are the important appliances which are used in our household for the various day to day functions like cooking, cleaning, exercising, purifying, food preservation etc. The majority of household domestic appliances are the large machines usually used in the bedrooms, bathrooms, halls and in the kitchen. The appliances which are used in a kitchen accomplish some routine housekeeping task such as cooking, food preservation, and cleaning. The household appliances have a major role in the stylish appearance of any home décor. The uptrend’s in technology and innovations made the home appliances more user-friendly making the home routines as quickly as possible. Industrialization and Development in Home Appliances: Industrialization has ushered in dramatic as well as uneven transformation in world society. It has altered the technological pattern and work processes of the preindustrial ways of life. This socio-technological revolution has changed the domestic ways and means of dealing with food provision, clothing, cleaning, and medical care. Kitchen Appliances: The happiness, delight, and peace of a family is generated in the kitchen and reflected in the dining room and in the whole domestic atmosphere. Women are the torch bearers of domestic peace. Kitchen appliances, belong to the home category, play a major role in enhancing the efficiency of a woman in fulfilling her household mission and thereby in making her life and that of all the members of the family happy and comfortable. There are even so many items that fall into the category of kitchen appliances of a modern family. Starting from the stove to a dishwasher all can be considered as kitchen appliances. The market of the kitchen and home appliances is ranked among the forerunners in industry annals. The variety of such appliances can also astound many. There are appliances suited for multiple needs. Laundry machines and dishwashers, vacuum cleaners etc have taken out a lot of physical strain from a homemaker. Not only do these appliances perform terrific jobs of cooking and cleaning, but we can also buy them in complete packages to match the style of our kitchen. In this age where time is money, we cannot fuss around our kitchen and home performing daily chores throughout the day. This is where these ubiquitous creations come in hand along with the appliance repair that has made our lives infinitely easier than that of our ancestors. Beginner’s guide to cycling accessories: what to take on a bike ride The sheer range of stuff available in a typical bike shop can be bewildering. What’s a hydration bladder? Why might you need a turbo trainer? Are mudguards really necessary? In reality, many people cycle happily in their normal clothes, possibly with just a rucksack to carry things. But if you do ride regularly, whether to keep fit or for commuting, there are a number of bicycle supplies that can make your time on two wheels easier, safer and more comfortable. Some are essential, while others are nice to have. A lock If you leave your bike on the street at all, you’re going to need to lock it up. This is one area where you truly get what you pay for: good locks are not cheap, but the best ones will resist anything short of power tools, and so make a thief look elsewhere. It’s impossible to be certain how good a lock is just by looking at it. Sold Secure provides independent ratings for locks – gold, silver and bronze – and can offer some peace of mind as to the quality of a lock. Many bicycle insurance policies require the use of a Sold Secure-rated lock. If you do want to insure your bike(s), read our guide to finding the best bicycle insurance for you. If you need to leave your bike on the street, or need to secure your bike at home, investing in a quality lock is a small price to pay to avoid the inconvenience of a long walk home and, more significantly, the cost of a new bike. Luggage There are many options when it comes to cycling luggage for carrying things on a bike, from a simple saddle bag for essential spares, to a full set of racks and panniers loaded with enough gear to cross continents. What’s best depends on the type of riding you’re doing. A saddle bag is, as the name suggests, a bag that attaches to the underside of your saddle. It’s typically compact and can be used to carry the kind of spares you might need in the event of a roadside mechanical. German technology and engineering group Bosch, which is the world’s largest car-parts supplier, believes semiconductor supply chains in the automotive industry are no longer fit for purpose as the global chip shortage rages on. Harald Kroeger, a member of the Bosch management board, told CNBC’s Annette Weisbach in an exclusive interview Monday that supply chains have buckled in the last year as demand for chips in everything from cars to PlayStation 5s and electric toothbrushes has surged worldwide. Coinciding with the surge in demand, several key semiconductor manufacturing sites were forced to halt production, Kroeger said. In February, a winter storm in Texas caused blackouts at NXP Semiconductors, which is a major provider of automotive and mobile phone chips. In March, there was a fire at a semiconductor plant in Japan operated by Renesas, one of the car industry’s biggest chip suppliers. In August, factories in Malaysia have been abandoned as national lockdowns were introduced to reduce the spread of the coronavirus. Volkswagen and BMW cut their production as they struggled to get the car supplies they needed to build their cars. These companies and semiconductor suppliers should now be looking to figure out how the chip supply chain can be improved, Kroeger said. “As a team, we need to sit together and ask, for the future operating system is there a better way to have longer lead times,” he said. “I think what we need is more stock on some parts [of the supply chain] because some of those semiconductors need six months to be produced. You cannot run on a system [where] every two weeks you get an order. That doesn’t work.” Semiconductor supply chain issues have been quietly managed by the automotive in the past but now is a time for change, according to Kroeger, who believes demand is only going to increase with the rise of electric vehicles and autonomous vehicles. Why the Outdoor Industry Isn’t Expecting a Slowdown Anytime Soon For many people around the world, if there was one upside to the pandemic, it was rediscovering a love for the outdoors. Fitness tracking app Strava’s 2020 Year In Sport report showed a 33% increase in activity participation globally compared to 2019, with 1.1 billion activities uploaded to the platform last year. Fitness watch brand Suunto, meanwhile, reported a 41% increase in walking among American users over the last year, with hiking, specifically, up 25%. As the popularity of everything from trekking to cycling surged, so did the need for the clothing and gear to perform these activities. While the outdoor apparel business had to navigate turbulent early pandemic days, the uptick in interest translated into big business for almost every company selling gear tailored to an activity. “The attention to outdoor lifestyle and active apparel brought us to the surface a little quicker,” says Mountain Hardwear Vice President of Sales Troy Sicotte. “It put us in the decision tree a little sooner than what would have happened otherwise.” He says the brand, which was in the middle of a major “revitalization,” benefitted not only from those exploring the outdoors for the first time, but those doing it on more than one occasion, ready to spend more for higher-quality gear. Families who either never participated in outdoor activities, or hadn’t done so in years, were outfitting everyone in their groups as well in preparation for pandemic-safe recreation. “We had two-years worth of (apparel and gear) demand in a season,” he says, referring to last spring into summer. He adds a note of confidence overall, saying that all of their categories, especially camping and hiking, will continue to grow as people embrace being outside and make the outdoors a part of their future plans. Although running exists partly in its own space as a speciality sports category, the activity has plenty of crossover into the general outdoor category. Running picked up steam as the weather warmed, and as Brooks Running COO Dan Sheridan notes, brands like his are building their strategy around plenty of continued interest in the year ahead.