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  • Profile picture of ariel@hcbar.org
    Ariel Clemmer
    Advocate

  • Profile picture of asdfaas24
    asdfaas24
    Advocate

    Steel Pipes Steel pipes are the most commonly used pipes in water supply systems. They are also used in pipelines for natural gas, and sewerage systems. Although comparatively expensive to other pipes, they hold the advantage of being able to withstand high pressures and are available in more convenient lengths, and can also be welded easily, thereby resulting in lower installation and transportation costs. These types of pipes are highly efficient and can be used in small diameters as needed and are 100% recyclable compared to other materials. The pipes can further be melted down and turned into other usable material in industry. Furthermore, the high strength of these pipes and resistance to damage caused by human errors, tree roots, and extreme weather conditions make these pipes the ideal choice for most water and sewerage supply systems. The disadvantages of steel pipes include thermal conductivity, which is very poor as there is a difference in heat transfer. These types of pipes are usually bonded with aluminum or copper alloy to increase thermal conductivity and improve heat transfer. Cost is another issue, as these pipes are expensive and this is guided by the misconception of being a one-time purchase. However, steel pipes are difficult to fabricate and lack the malleable qualities that other materials have, therefore repairs and replacements of steel pipes are extra difficult. Basic material properties Steel is strong, rigid, and has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. It is also heavy (multiple workers may be needed to transport it) and is subject to corrosion. Sometimes it is called carbon steel or black special steel to differentiate from stainless and galvanized steel. All steel, by definition, contains carbon. Steel often is used for closed hydronic systems because it is inexpensive, especially when compared with other materials in systems with high pressures, and corrosion is relatively easily controlled in these systems. It also is a good choice for steam and steam-condensate systems because it handles high temperatures and pressures well, and corrosion is normally not an issue in steam pipes. However, corrosion is an issue in steam-condensate pipes, and many engineers specify schedule 80 steel pipe simply because it takes about twice as long to rust through as schedule 40 pipe. If amines (commonly cyclohexylamine, morpholine, or diethylethanolamine (DEAE) are fed properly to neutralize condensate pipe pH, condensate pipes can last the life of the building. Some building owners do not want these chemicals in steam that may be used for humidification because of health concerns; however, not using these amines might require a change to stainless steel (SS) piping or adding a separate “clean steam” system for humidification and for sterilization of medical instruments. Rigidity is important because it determines the distance between hangers. Steel pipe is manufactured in 21-ft lengths, and the hangers can be spaced that widely for large-diameter pipe. More flexible materials, however, may require hangers on as close as 4-ft centers or even continuously. Consult ANSI/MSS SP-58: Pipe Hangers and Supports – Materials, Design, Manufacture, Selection, Application, and Installation for details about hangers and hanger spacing. A low coefficient of thermal expansion minimizes the need for expansion loops and expansion joints. However, the high rigidity of steel means that although it expands less, it exerts very high forces on anchors. Galvanized steel pipe is steel pipe that is dipped into a pool of zinc (see Figure 1). Galvanizing has two methods of corrosion reduction: It coats the surface like paint, and under most circumstances it forms a very adherent oxide layer like aluminum and SS. It provides a sacrificial anode (zinc) to receive corrosion instead of the steel corroding. Galvanized steel pipe has all the advantages of steel pipe, and is used in insulated and coated piping, plus improved corrosion resistance in most environments, although at a slightly higher cost. Galvanizing works almost perfectly in applications where it is wetted and dried periodically (e.g., road signs and guard rails). It can fail in environments with high sodium (e.g., softened water that started out very hard) because the sodium makes the adherent oxide film detach and react more like steel pipe where the oxide flakes off. If galvanized pipe is being welded, the welder needs to be careful to grind down to the raw steel. Repairing galvanizing on the inside of the pipe is difficult or impossible. If the interior needs a continuous galvanized layer, consider mechanical couplings. (More information is available via the American Galvanizers Association.) Copper pipe often is used in both hydronic and domestic applications, especially for 2-in. and smaller pipe sizes. However, some contractors propose replacing galvanized steel domestic-water pipe with copper up to 6-in. in size, especially in the Midwest. Copper is an expensive material but has the advantage of weighing less than steel and may require fewer employees to install, depending on weight and union restrictions. Also, copper is generally more noble and corrosion-resistant than steel or galvanized steel pipe fittings. Stainless steel is widely considered to be resistant to all corrosion. This is true in many circumstances, but not all. Anaerobic and chloride corrosion can affect SS. The most common alloy is 304 SS, which adds 18% chromium and 8% nickel to steel. 304L has reduced carbon content to minimize the tendency for SS to corrode at welds. SS with the L designation is recommended for all SS that will be welded and might have corrosion issues, like fume exhaust and some pipe systems. 316 and 316L add molybdenum to reduce susceptibility to chlorides. In the past decade, we have seen thinner SS being proposed as an alternative to galvanized seamless steel tube and pipe and larger-diameter copper pipe, primarily for domestic potable-water piping. There is one potential problem with this if done incorrectly (see, “Mixing materials may equal trouble”). SS requires some oxygen to build an adhering oxide layer, like aluminum car wheels. This is normally not a problem in hydronic heating/cooling systems or domestic-water systems, but a large chilled-water-storage system could have oxygen levels become low enough to have issues with microbially influenced corrosion (known as MIC). There are many grades of SS. In general, 300 series alloys are the most corrosion-resistant and are nonmagnetic. 400 series are harder, more resistant to abrasion, withstand higher temperatures, and are magnetic. 200 series alloys are used in sinks and applications where less corrosion resistance is acceptable.

  • Profile picture of asdfaas25
    asdfaas25
    Scholar, Advocate

    8 Benefits of Owning a Dehumidifier If you commonly get allergies, you know that they can get rather miserable at times. When you live in a humid climate, there are many triggers for these things—dust mites, mold, mildew, and seasonal allergies. If you find that you are suffering a lot, a good dehumidifier can help–in more ways than one. Here are some benefits of a dehumidifier and how to choose the right one for you. Allergy Triggers Thrive in Humidity Many of the most common allergy triggers, especially dust mites, mold, and mildew, thrive in humid environments. Whether you live in a humid climate, or you just have a living space that tends to be more humid, you may be suffering from these things. Small living spaces with limited ventilation, such as bathrooms or kitchens in a small apartment or basement apartments, are common areas where moisture can build up, even in dry climates. Mold allergies are also a significant contributor to childhood asthma, which can be a debilitating and costly disease for children who develop it at a young age. This article expands on some of the dangers that allergens present when they are in your home. Benefits of a Dehumidifier There are several benefits to getting a commercial dehumidifier in your home, basement, apartment, or office space. Dehumidifiers reduce humidity levels, making your home less hospitable to allergens such as dust mites, mold, and mildew. They are not disruptive to your daily life, and run quietly and efficiently in the background without most people even noticing. Dehumidifiers help reduce odors that can accompany mold and mildew in your home—getting rid of that “musty” or “rotting” smell. These devices help to reduce the possibility that you will develop mold on your clothing, furniture, and other linens (such as curtains or bed sheets). Dehumidifiers reduce irritation to your skin and your respiratory system, allowing you to breathe easier and feel comfortable in your home. A less humid environment in your home means clothing will dry faster, breads and cereals will remain fresh longer without getting stale, and you won’t find signs of rust or corrosion on things like computer equipment, electronics, and tools. Running a dehumidifier helps reduce dust in your home, so you won’t have to clean as often. A dehumidifier also lowers energy costs because it helps your air conditioner run more efficiently. When the air in your home is more humid, the A/C must do the function of cooling the air and removing moisture, which means it has to work harder. This also causes your A/C to wear out sooner, which means you will need to replace and repair it more often. In addition to suffering from constant symptoms of allergies, you may want to consider a industrial dehumidifier if you have some obvious signs of high humidity in certain rooms or areas of your home, including: Water stains on the walls or ceilings of your home High humidity rooms with poor ventilation or no ventilation (especially in areas like bathrooms that have no windows) Frequent condensation on the windows in certain areas of your home Small black spots (mold spores) growing on the walls or in areas with high humidity, such as the bathtub or shower Must or mildew smells You may also want to consider a dehumidifier if you live in an apartment building, since mold and mildew spores can travel through ventilation systems, and can build up in the walls between apartments. Even if you keep your living area clean, these allergens from other areas of the building can be harmful to yours and your family’s health. Choosing a Dehumidifier There are several different options when it comes to dehumidifiers, and the one you choose depends on the space in which you plan to use it, as well as the humidity levels. There are small capacity models for a single small room, large capacity models for larger areas such as a large room, basement, or an apartment, and there are whole-house models available as well if you live in a very humid climate, you suffer from significant allergies, or you have a large home. For more specific and unique needs, consider purchasing a dehumidifier with special features. Getting a dehumidifier can help you live a healthier, happier life, so if you are suffering from allergies and other symptoms, the answer to the question of whether you should own a dehumidifier is probably yes. Find out more about the different models and options available, and see which one will fit your budget and help you get clean, healthy air in your home. If you live close to the equator or near a coastal region, you probably hear your local weatherman say the word "humidity" all too often. But no matter where you are, you've surely experienced it -- that muggy, heavy feeling that fills the air, often when it's rainy, foggy or hot outside. It can make your hair frizzy and may seem to dampen everything, including your mood. When people complain about humidity, for the most part they're talking about relative humidity. Depending on temperature, air can hold a fixed amount of water vapor; relative humidity is the ratio of actual vapor in the air to this fixed amount. For example, at a temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius), one cubic meter (35 cubic feet) of air can hold about 18 grams (.6 ounces) of water. This would be a state of saturation, otherwise known as 100 percent relative humidity. That's a lot of jargon to describe a level of humidity that, for many people, can feel extremely uncomfortable. When this humidity seeps into your home, it can make rooms feel stuffy and perhaps even smell musty. Beyond these superficial discomforts, too much humidity can have some more serious disadvantages, too. An overly humid home can lose its structural integrity, attract pests like silverfish and centipedes, and even make you sick. In an average home in which the temperature is 68 degrees Fahrenheit, the relative humidity should ideally be between 30 and 50 percent. If you're struggling to reach that range, a dehumidifier may come in handy. Dehumidifiers remove excess moisture from the air, improving the comfort and health of your home. In this article, you'll learn what types of dehumidifiers are available and how you can get the best results out of the ceiling mounted dehumidifier you have. But first, read on to next page to find out exactly how a dehumidifier does its job. Imagine enjoying a soda during a particularly warm day. When you pick up the can, you might notice that it's wet -- there's moisture on the outside. Why is that? As air loses heat, it also begins to lose its ability to retain moisture; the colder surface pulls and collects water from the warmer air, creating condensation. Your dehumidifier does pretty much the same thing. Most dehumidifiers can be broken down into five component parts: FanCompressor -- This compresses and expands a refrigerant gas like freon to cool the dehumidifier's coils. (See How Air Conditioners Work for a more detailed explanation of this cycle.) Reheater -- This captures and collects heat that the cooling process generates. Compressor cooling coils Reservoir How do all these parts fit together to pull moisture from the air? It's fairly simple, but very effective: A fan collects air from the surrounding area and pulls it into the dehumidifier. As the air passes through, it comes into contact with the dehumidifier's cooled coils. These coils use condensation to pull moisture from the air. The collected moisture remains on the coils and drips into the dehumidifier's reservoir. The dehumidifier reheats the air and exhausts it back into the room. A dehumidifier usually has a removable plastic bucket for a reservoir; most buckets also have a place where you can hook up a hose so the collected water can drain straight into a floor drain or pump. This frees you from having to remember to dump out the water. But don't worry too much about the reservoir overflowing -- home dehumidifier also have an automatic shut-off. If you're using a dehumidifier in extremely moist conditions, however, or if you need to keep your dehumidifier on all the time, you should look into a unit with a built-in condensate pump, which regularly pumps water out of the unit's reservoir rather than simply relying on gravity to empty it as a hose does. Many dehumidifiers also have a humidistat, which allows you to set your desired level of relative humidity. A humidistat has two parts: a sensing element and a relay amplifier. The sensing element includes two alternate metal conductors, and changes in relative humidity will cause electrical resistance between those conductors. The relay amplifier measures this resistance and sends a signal to turn the dehumidifier on or off. These basic components add up to a device that may make your home feel a whole lot better. Now that you know the basics of dehumidifier technology, it's time to learn about different kinds of dehumidifiers. Which one may be right for you? Read on to find out. While refrigerative dehumidifiers may be the most well-known, desiccant dehumidifiers also do a great job of keeping a space nice and dry. True to their name, these dehumidifiers pull in air and pass it over a desiccant material such as silica gel. Desiccants naturally absorb moisture -- that's why you'll find little packets of silica gel in new shoes or electronic goods. Because desiccant dehumidifiers don't need to cool air before dehumidifying it, this technology is really ideal for sub-zero conditions. Since the technology behind them is so simple and effective, dehumidifiers mostly vary in size and strength. Portable dehumidifiers are the kind that you usually see in the home improvement aisle; they're often plastic, relatively cheap and very lightweight. They're designed to be most effective in smaller spaces like a bedroom or kitchen. Restoration humidifiers are heavy-duty machines that can withstand harsh conditions -- they're usually used to repair heavy water damage caused by hurricanes or other natural disasters. The largest models on the market, whole-house dehumidifiers, usually augment a home's existing heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. You'll have to hire a professional to install one of those. Some manufacturers have also created specially sized crawlspace dehumidifiers to address the humidity in storage areas and powerful dehumidifiers that are targeted toward the high humidity created by some indoor pools and spas. Whichever kind of dehumidifier you choose, it may help make your home a little greener. Read on to find out how. A portable dehumidifier can consume 160 kilowatt hours per month (kWh) -- that's more than your refrigerator eats up. However, it does burn less energy than the average air conditioner, which tears through about 300 kWh per month. Also, since excessive relative humidity makes us perceive temperature as being higher than it is, keeping your home drier may lead you to reach for the thermostat less, which could result in lower energy consumption overall. To really save on your utility bills and diminish your carbon footprint, work on maximizing your dehumidifier's efficiency. Don't keep it on all day, set the humidistat at a reasonable level (50 percent rather than 30 percent), and keep your doors and windows closed when it runs. Most dehumidifiers discharge air from the top of the machine, but if yours does not have top-mounted discharge, make sure that it's placed well away from walls and furniture to keep air circulating freely. Keep it away from sources of excessive dust or dirt, since this can very quickly clog the machine. For that matter, be sure to check and clean your dehumidifier's filter regularly -- this will help ensure that it's operating as efficiently as possible. In addition to saving energy, you also might be able to recycle the water that your dehumidifier collects. The water that shows up in your dehumidifier's bucket is considered greywater. That means it's not suitable for drinking, but can be great for watering houseplants and flowers, since it's less salty than tap water. However, you should check first to see if there are any restrictions on using greywater in your area. While the benefits of dehumidifier ownership are many, there are some potential downsides, too. For one thing, cost may be an issue. Dehumidifiers can be somewhat pricey -- many models sell for more than $150. Or you may just object to having a bucket of standing water sitting around in your home. No matter what your reservations are, it's worth figuring out if you really need a dehumidifier before you take the plunge and buy one. Read on for some tips that may help you make that decision. Do you need a dehumidifier? Start by taking a look around your home. The most noticeable symptoms of excessive humidity may include wet stains on your walls and ceilings, rotting and weakened wood, mold and fungus, condensation on your windows, peeling wallpaper, blistering paint, and a generally musty, stuffy feeling. In addition to those somewhat obvious signs of humidity, there are also some more subtle conditions you can watch out for. For example, you may want to look into a purchasing a dehumidifier if your doors, cabinets or windows are sticking, or if your floors are especially creaky. When wood absorbs moisture, it swells. This pushes apart joints, loosens screws and nails, and generally compromises your home's strength. While your noisy stairs might be a simple nuisance now, if humidity is the underlying issue, your problems could get worse. Dehumidifiers can also help mitigate the effects of common allergies to dust mites, fungus and mold; if the air in your home is excessively moist, it can encourage the growth of these allergens. Even if you don't have allergies, preventing mold growth is a good reason to consider getting a dehumidifier. Mold only requires a bit of moisture to grow, and it can set up shop in your home as soon as one of its airborne spores finds a hospitably damp surface. A mold problem in your home can cause serious illness. And once it shows up, mold is a pain to eradicate and can permanently stain or damage whatever it's decided to live on. The easiest strategy is to just keep it from showing up at all. You can also use a dehumidifier to discourage insects from moving in with you. Roaches, silverfish, spiders and centipedes all love a moist environment. Keeping the air in your home relatively dry will drive away those unwanted tenants. Additionally, if you've got a cold or a particularly bad, congested cough, using a dehumidifier may free up your breathing and help you sleep better at night. As you can see, there are plenty of good reasons why you might consider using a dehumidifier. To find out more about these devices and related topics, follow the links on the next page.  

  • Profile picture of asdfaas26
    asdfaas26
    Scholar

    Cotton or cellulose fluff, cost savings or convenience, laundry or landfill: For some new parents, choosing between using a cloth or disposable diapers can feel like a big decision. How do you know which kind of diaper will work best for your family? Advocates for both cloth and disposable Baby Diapers make strident and often conflicting claims about the benefits and drawbacks of each. Depending on who you listen to, you may hear that either disposable or cloth diapers are the cheaper, healthier, more ecological, more convenient, and/or more enlightened way to care for your baby. In our full reviews of cloth and disposable diapers, we go into detail about the materials, construction, and performance of both types, but here we will address some reasons why parents choose cloth or disposable diapers, and what evidence exists to support them. Diaper rash and skin health Proponents of cloth and disposable Baby Pant Diapers both claim that babies wearing their chosen type suffer less diaper rash. After talking to two pediatric dermatologists and reviewing the scientific literature on the topic, it is clear to us that disposable diapers do have the edge in preventing the most common type of diaper rash, irritant diaper dermatitis, which is caused by moisture from urine and feces remaining trapped against the skin. Modern disposables are highly absorbent, and, as we found in testing for our guide, the top performers can keep a baby’s skin dry even after multiple wettings. Dr. Bruce Brod, a pediatric dermatologist who specializes in dermatitis, told us: “The skin is largely better off with disposable diapers because of the technology that evolved”—namely, the use of superabsorbent polymers, which take in and retain many times their weight in liquid. But some babies can develop allergic rashes from certain ingredients used in disposable diapers, including rubber, adhesives, fragrances, and dyes. The conclusion? Either type of diaper can lead to rashes, but disposable diapers typically keep babies drier and better prevent the common problem of diaper rash caused by moisture. Potty training Some cloth diaper companies and educational sites claim that babies who wear cloth diapers potty train earlier than babies diapered with disposables. Besides anecdotal evidence, these sources often cite the fact that the age of toilet training in the US has risen from around 18 months in the 1950s and 1960s to 3 years old today, a climb that tracks the increase in popularity of disposable Adult Diapers, from their introduction in the mid 20th century to today, with over 95 percent of babies in the US using disposables. Dr. Bruce Taubman, a pediatrician at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School and co-author of several studies on toilet training, told us he’s unaware of any scientific evidence that the use of cloth diapers leads to earlier potty training. “To my knowledge, there is no data,” he said, and suggested the change in the age of potty training likely has more to do with changes in family structures and parenting styles over the past several decades. A 1987 study in Japan compared a small group of infants—including twins—half of whom were diapered with cloth and half with disposables. That study found the two groups potty trained at the same age. An article (cowritten by a dermatologist and a researcher for Procter & Gamble) comparing diaper and toilet training practices around the world noted the age of toilet training seems to be influenced by culture, pointing out that babies in India and China (which have higher rates of cloth diaper use) and Russia (where babies predominantly wear disposables) all potty train earlier than their counterparts in the US and Western Europe. The conclusion? There is probably no reason to choose a diapering method based on potty training goals. Environmental impact The environmental impact that this new person will have on the world weighs heavily on some soon-to-be parents. One of the more commonly reported reasons parents considers cloth diapers is that they’re more environmentally friendly than disposables, or are believed to be. There is no question that disposable Adult Pant Diapers create more landfill waste: a baby is likely to go through between 5,000 and 6,000 disposable diapers before becoming potty trained. A 2014 Environmental Protection Agency report found that disposable diapers account for 7 percent of nondurable household waste in landfills. Except in very limited cases, disposable diapers (regardless of what they claim) won’t compost or biodegrade in a landfill. But disposable diaper advocates have countered that the energy and water costs of laundering cloth diapers, as well as the environmental impact of cotton production, make them less environmentally friendly than they appear, particularly in terms of the carbon emissions traceable to their care. The best life-cycle analysis we have found is a 2008 report (PDF) from the Environment Agency in the UK that compared the manufacturing, disposal, and energy costs of both Pet Diaper types. “The environmental impacts of using shaped reusable nappies can be higher or lower than using disposables, depending on how they are laundered,” the report concludes. The agency’s analysis found that based on average laundry habits and appliance efficiency, when washing with 60 °C (140 °F) water and mostly line-drying, the overall carbon emissions created by cloth diapering were roughly the same as those of using disposables. But using cloth diapers for a second child or getting them secondhand, exclusively line-drying them, and washing them in fuller loads could reduce that amount by up to 40 percent. (Whether there are any advantages to using so-called “eco-friendly” disposable diapers is even more complicated, and we are planning a separate post on that topic.) During the First World War, nurses noticed that cellulose was much more effective at absorbing blood compared to cloth bandages. This inspired the first cellulose Kotex Sanitary Napkin, made from surplus high-absorption war bandages, which was first sold in 1918. By 1921, Kotex had become the first successfully mass-marketed sanitary napkin (3, 1). In addition to providing the innovation for a product that would drastically change the options available to women, the war caused another major shift in women’s lives: they were now needed to contribute to factory production in a way they had never been before. Through ads and bathroom redesign, factory employers during WWII encouraged women to use menstrual products in order to “toughen up” and continue to work during their monthly bleeding. (This was in spite of the pervasive questioning of women’s “emotional stability” – female pilots were encouraged not to work during “that time of the month”). Wet Wipes are the San Pellegrino of butt-cleansing tools: They feel like a fancier, grown-up version of toilet paper. And addition to the posh factor, people who swear by them for their post-bowel-movement wipe believe that the method is more thorough and leaves the buttocks cleaner than it would otherwise be. And while I hear you concerning the argument at hand, an anal surgeon says it is time to ditch those wet wipes for good.

  • Profile picture of asdfaas27
    asdfaas27
    Scholar, Advocate

    BREWING YOUR OWN BEER: WHAT YOU NEED TO GET STARTED So you want to make your own beer. How hard could it be, right? Really, it’s not that hard, and I’ll have a nice home beer brewing equipment for you soon that outlines every aspect of the process. Before you get all fired up about it, though, let me be the voice of reason and point out that you’re going to have to spend a pretty nice chunk of change before you can even make your first batch. While the actual process of brewing is simple, it is pretty time consuming, and when you first get started, there is quite the long list of equipment and ingredients that first need to be bought. Not all of these are cheap, either, but after your initial investment, the home brewing process is actually much more affordable than buying beer at the store. Let’s take a look at what all you’ll need to get ready to brew. Every single article or guide that I have read is sure to emphasize this one key point: sanitize like a maniac. Every item that will have even the slightest contact with your beer at any phase of the brewing process needs to be as clean as you can get it. You can, of course, use a mixture of bleach and hot water to soak everything, and then rinse everything thoroughly. This can add additional time to the process that you don’t necessarily have to spend. Many sanitizers do not require rinsing and most are on the inexpensive side, costing less than $5 on average and up to $15 for a large container. One package or bottle will last you through many brewing sessions, so they are a fantastic deal. I would definitely make the small investment in a good no-rinse sanitizer if I was planning to brew on a regular basis. I suppose that you could use any old stock pot for making your wort, but I wouldn’t recommend it. First, when you’re boiling your wort (pronounced wert- see my guide to beer for more on that), you will need plenty of extra room to avoid overflowing the pot. Most home beer recipes make five gallons, so you need at least an 8 gallon pot to have enough additional space during the boiling process. This is not your average-size stock pot. Additionally, brew kettles are made specifically for making beer (obviously), which means that they have nice heavy bottoms for even heat distribution. You can also get them with built-in temperature gauges to easily keep an eye on that, which is really important for the step that follows the boil- adding the yeast (if you add it when the wort is too hot, it kills the yeast, and  dead yeast=no beer). You can even get a kettle with a built-in spigot, which will come in super handy. These two features cost more, but even a basic kettle will be a bit pricey, with the price climbing upwards for the extra features and larger sizes. Known in the beer fermentation equipment as a carboy, a fermentation vessel is simply the place where the wort and yeast are combined and allowed to sit for several days to turn into beer. Whatever you use for this fermentation process needs to be 100% airtight so that not even one airborne microbe can get in to alter the taste of the batch. Keep in mind also that you will need at least two containers for this part of the process, because you will siphon the beer out of the first fermentation vessel into a second one after a few days (more on that part of the process in my next article). A plastic carboy will run you around $30, which isn’t too bad, and these won’t be nearly as heavy to try to move when they are full of liquid as a thick glass fermenter (also referred to as a fermentor). On the other hand, a good glass carboy will last forever, with proper care and handling, and they start around the same price point. You can get away with buying a simple food-grade plastic bucket for under $20, but I haven’t seen one that has a gasket on the lid to make for a truly air-tight seal, whereas all the better carboys and other actual fermenters will have a gasket. AIR LOCKS During the fermentation process, as the yeast eats up the sugar in the wort, there are two byproducts- alcohol and carbon dioxide. As the CO2 builds up inside the fermentation vessel, you’re going to need a way to release that gas without letting outside air into the container to possibly contaminate your brew. This is where an air lock comes into play. These fit securely into the top or, in some cases, onto the lower side of any vessel made specifically for brewing. The air lock allows all the built-up gas to escape, which will hopefully prevent any explosions from happening. Yes, you read that correctly- explosions. Whenever you have any situation where pressure is building within an enclosed area, explosions can occur, and the fermentation period is no exception. Not using an air lock pretty much guarantees you’ll end up with beer pouring out of a broken carboy, and with them only costing a couple of bucks, there’s no reason not to buy one. LONG-HANDLED SPOON Remember, you’re going to be dealing with at least an 8-gallon brew kettle, so we’re talking about a really long handle on this spoon, an item you’re not likely to have on hand. You’ll use the spoon for stirring during the boiling process, and you will need to be able to reach all the way to the bottom of the pot. You can also lay the spoon horizontally across the top of the kettle, which will help prevent the wort from boiling over. I recommend going with the stainless steel option on this for durability, which only costs a few dollars. HYDROMETER Before I go into what a hydrometer does and why you need one, we need to talk about gravity. No, I’m not talking about the kind of gravity that keeps your feet on the earth. I’m talking about specific gravity, which, according to Wikipedia, is “the ratio of the density of a substance to the density (mass of the same unit volume) of a reference substance,” with the substance being your fermenting beer and the reference substance being water. Specific gravity in beer is important because it’s how you can determine the percentage of alcohol in the final product. When you first start the process, the density of the liquid will be higher, closer to that of plain water. As the yeast in the fermentation vessel consumes the sugar in the malt and converts the liquid into alcohol, the specific gravity inside the container will drop, because alcohol is considerably denser than water. Once the gravity stops dropping, you know that the yeast has finished its work. A hydrometer is a device that measures the specific gravity of your brew, so it’s useful for determining the aforementioned readings. Also, by taking the measurement of the final gravity inside the container and subtracting it from the original gravity of the brew, you can determine the percentage of alcohol your product contains. A hydrometer looks like an oversized, old fashioned, mercury thermometer, and costs around the same amount, so it’s not an expensive tool to buy and is pretty useful to have around. You just don’t want be measuring non-stop during fermentation since you’d be letting air into the container. You can simply measure before putting on the lid or stopper and then again when you siphon the beer filling machine out for the secondary fermentation that I mentioned before. We recommend this one. SIPHONS As I said, at some point you will need to siphon out the liquid from one fermentation vessel to another. In the same place where you attach the air lock to the container, you will need to attach a siphon. Now, once the yeast has done its job, all the dead yeast will settle on the bottom of the container, along with the used up malt and hops. You need to remove the liquid from the container while at the same time getting as little of those bits and pieces as possible. You could always just pick up the ridiculously heavy carboy or bucket and slowly and carefully pour the beer from one container to the other, but you will end up with more of that sediment in the second container, which will result in a hazy final product. You don’t want that. Instead, make sure to purchase a siphon. Alternatively, you can even buy a ported fermenter that has a valve on the side to transfer the liquid, no siphons required. BOTTLES, ETC. Once you finish the brewing and fermenting, you will of course need to bottle up your brew. Invest in a good set of glass bottles that you can use time and time again. Go with brown glass since they will block out the most UV light, which can cause spoilage. To make things easy on yourself, I would also say to buy the bottles with the attached swing caps. Expect an investment of around $2.50 per bottle. The kicker is that you will probably need about 4 packs to bottle all of the beer from a standard recipe, which is for 5 gallons. If you want to save some money here, you can always opt for capping the bottles yourself. You will spend about half the amount on the bottles themselves going that route. You will spend another couple of bucks on a pack of bottle caps and a little more for a bottle capper. This will ultimately result in some savings. And considering the amount of money you will have invested already, this seems like a pretty good idea! INGREDIENT STARTER KITS Assuming you fall in love with the whole home brewing process, at some point you will probably want to buy your own malt and hops to really customize it to your taste. To begin with, though, it will be so much easier for you to buy a recipe kit. There are tons of websites including Amazon that offer these if you don’t have a home brewer’s store in your neck of the woods. Just decide what kind of beer you want to make (ale or lager) and the style that you prefer, and you’ll be able to find a kit for that. This really simplifies the brewing process, which is awesome when you’re a beginner. And they’re affordable, too. READY TO MAKE SOME BEER? I bet you would have never thought that it can take so much stuff to actually make a few bottles of beer, not to mention an initial investment of at least $300. Now that you know, though, it’s easy to set about buying what you need. Stay tuned for my follow-up article where you’ll get a step-by-step guide to the actual beer-making process. Although the equipment needed to brew beer traditionally was fairly simple, large commercial breweries today use equipment that does everything from crack the grain to seal the cases and a multitude of chores in between. These are the basics: Most folks visiting a brewery immediately recognize the large, round brew kettle that usually dominates the brewhouse. Somewhere nearby is usually a second, sometimes smaller, similar-looking vessel called a mash tun, and if the place is big and brews lagers, it has yet another one, called a lauter tun. These vessels are vented through stacks that carry the steam out of the brewhouse, consequently treating the whole neighborhood to the intoxicating, malty-sweet aroma of beer in the making. Traditionally, these vessels were made of copper and were often referred to simply as the coppers. Nowadays, the term has fallen out of use, mostly because modern brewing equipment is fabricated from the relatively cheaper and easier-to-obtain stainless steel. After the first three vessels are used, the wine filling machine is pumped (and cooled at the same time) into a big tank called a fermenter. For sanitation purposes, fermenters are usually airtight vessels that allow only for the escape of the carbon dioxide pressure built up inside. However, some traditionalists in the industry, particularly in Britain and Belgium, still allow their beer to ferment in open vessels, and some even encourage spontaneous fermentations caused by wild, airborne yeast (Belgian Lambic brewers, for example). At this point, each brewery uses different kinds of tanks and does different things to its beer. For example: Most breweries allow beer to go through a short aging process after the initial fermentation, using additional vessels cleverly named aging tanks for this purpose. Next, breweries transfer the aged beer from aging tanks into finishing tanks to prepare them for their introduction into society. Beer would not exist without microbes. During fermentation, yeast cells convert cereal-derived sugars into ethanol and CO2. Yeast also produces a wide array of aroma compounds that influence beer taste and aroma. The complex interaction between all these aroma compounds results in each beer having its own distinctive palette. This article contains all protocols needed to brew beer in a standard lab environment and focuses on the use of yeast in beer brewing. More specifically, it provides protocols for yeast propagation, brewing calculations and, of course, beer brewing. At the end, we have also included protocols for analyses that can be performed on the resulting brew, with a focus on yeast-derived aroma compounds. Beer brewing is intrinsically a biotechnological process: the conversion of raw materials into beer relies on many different enzymatic reactions and microbial activity. Beer is traditionally made from four key ingredients: malted cereals (barley or other), water, hops, and yeast. Each of these ingredients contributes to the final taste and aroma of beer. Beer production starts with the malting of barley (or other cereals, such as wheat, sorghum, rye, or oats). The main goal of malting is to activate enzymes within the grain. These enzymes will hydrolyze starch and other compounds within the kernels during mashing (Goldammer, 2008; Kunze, 2004). During malting, barely kernels are soaked in water and periodically aerated, the so-called steeping and germination phase. During germination, three important groups of enzymes are activated: (i) amylases, (ii) proteases/peptidases, and (iii) beta-glucanases. Each of these enzymes have an important function during the malting and downstream brewing process: (i) amylases convert starch, present in the barley kernels, into fermentable sugars; (ii) proteases and peptidases break down proteins and release free amino nitrogen (FAN), while (iii) beta-glucanases degrade the endosperm cell wall, allowing other enzymes access to the endosperm. Next, in the drying and kilning phase, kernels are dried and heated. This stops germination, arrests enzymatic activity within the kernels, reduces spoilage risks, and determines the impact of malt on the final aroma and color of the beer. The actual brewing process consists of five steps. The main goal is to convert insoluble malt or grain material into a soluble and fermentable extract. Milling of malted grains (i) and mashing (ii) In this step, milled grains are mixed with warm water. This mash is kept at specific temperatures and pH to ensure proper enzymatic conversion of starch and proteins. Traditionally, a starting temperature of 45°C is used. At this temperature, proteases are activated and degrade proteins to short peptides and amino acids, that will form the major nitrogen source for yeast during fermentation. The mash is then heated to 62°C-64°C, at which starch will gelatinize and become accessible to amylases. Beta-amylases will cleave off maltose from starch molecules. The mash is then heated to 72°C for 15-25 min, allowing further breakdown of long chain polysaccharides by alpha-amylases. Finally, the temperature of the mash is raised to 78°C, stopping nearly all enzymatic activity. Modern, highly modified malts allow mashing in directly at temperatures >60°C since the protein breakdown has already been completed by the maltster. Filtering/lautering (iii) During this step, the insoluble fraction (spent grains) is separated from the soluble extract. The remaining extract (wort) is transferred to the boiling vessel. Boiling (iv) During boiling, hops and other spices are added. These contribute to bitterness and aroma of the final beer. More specifically, hops contain alpha acids and during boiling, these acids will isomerize into iso-alpha acids, the major bittering substances in beer. Bitter hops contain high concentrations of alpha acids (6%-16%) and are often added at the beginning of the boil. Aroma hops have a high hop oil content (>1%), which contains 200-250 different compounds that contribute to the characteristic aroma of hops (e.g., myrcene, linalool, and nonenal) (Kunze, 2004). Aroma hops are typically only added towards the end of the boil, or in the dry-hopping of green beer to reduce the stripping of aroma-active compounds. Other major effects of wort boiling include protein denaturation and aggregation, concentration of the wort, stripping of off-flavors such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and sanitization of the wort. The boiled wort is then transferred to a whirlpool to remove the aggregated protein and insoluble hop components (hot trub). Finally, the wort is cooled, aerated, and transferred into the fermentor, where yeast is added.

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    For years, I was like Goldilocks when it came to dining chairs. I went through three different sets before finally settling on vintage Paul McCobb Planner Group chairs. They’re decidedly mid-century in their provenance, but really, they’re a riff on a classic spindle chair that could have been designed by the Shakers. I chose them because they are simple, sturdy, and comfortable, but I would also argue that this type of modern spindle chair is one of the most versatile dining chairs you can purchase. Today’s spindle chairs can easily go farmhouse or modern, depending on what table and linens you pair them with. They also have a knack for looking right at home in both casual and formal settings. Many are painted black, which both harks back to traditional Windsor chairs and creates a visually striking silhouette, but you can find them in a range of finishes or paint some in a rainbow of shades yourself, if you want to. If you’re looking to upgrade your dining table setup, consider these eight spindle armchair contenders. They’re all made from solid wood, so they are built to last for years—and will likely still be in style for the long haul. Salt Chair Ton’s beech Ironica chair, sold by Design Within Reach as the “Salt Chair,” is an icon in its own right. The company has been selling this slender take on a spindle for more than a decade and currently stocks four finishes—white, grey, black and natural. This is one instance when DWR is more “within reach.” If you search for the Ironica from other retailers, you will find other colors but with higher price points. J77 Dining Chair Hay is another European manufacturer that makes its own modern take on a spindle chair. Their J77 dining chair is a personal favorite, thanks to its stylish, lower-profile back. This design is part of Hay’s 2011 relaunch of furniture originally made for FDB, the Danish Consumers’ Co-operative Society in the 1940s, and it comes in a few different colors as well. Magnolia Home Vermont Chimney Dining Side Chair Of course Joanna Gaines, the queen of modern farmhouse style, has not one, but two, spindle chairs in her collection for Living Spaces. This particular style skews a little more on the rustic side and has just the right proportions for a smaller dining area or breakfast nook. NORRARYD chair IKEA discontinued their OLLE chair, which was my favorite of their spindle dining chairs and the perfect match to my son’s junior chair, but they do have an option in their current catalog. The NORRARYD chair, which comes in black and white, costs just $75, so it’s a great budget option, even if the OLLE was a little more sleek. Taylor Solid Wood Dining Chairs Joss & Main sells many takes on a spindle chair, but the Taylor Solid Wood Dining Chair comes in an interesting two-tone colorway that sets it apart from many of the others on the market. These would be at home in any Scandi or farmhouse  modern decor scheme. Windsor Dining Chairs West Elm’s Windsor Dining Chairs are a surprisingly affordable option at less than $100 apiece. These are a collaboration with the London-based designer Aaron Probyn. You’ll have to wait a little while for these, since like many of the brand’s furniture pieces, they’re backordered until October. If you order now though, you’ll have them well before hosting Thanksgiving (if that’s a possibility this year). Thatcher Chair If American-made is important to you, the Thatcher Chair with bar stool from Room & Board is a solid but expensive option. The back is slightly higher than most dining chairs and dining table, which creates a dramatic silhouette. Crafted from maple with mortise-and-tenon joints, you can consider this style an heirloom in the making. Spindle Solid Wood Windsor Back Side Chair Want to make a bold move? Try this set of chairs finished in a shiny, electric shade of raspberry. They’re the perfect way to perk up a white tulip style table and can also work with blonde and mid-tone woods, too.

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    Caught in the mushy middle: How Quartz fell to earth The Atlantic wanted to corner a more premium space, selling marquee advertisers on a new generation of yacht owners and Rolex wearers. A free and digital Economist for the budding millennial business elite. The concept oozed an Obama-era ethos of global interconnectivity. “When you walk through a busy Asian airport, nobody is talking about or thinking about the American economy. The world has gotten much bigger than that,” David Bradley, then the owner of the Atlantic magazine, told the New York Times upon the launch of Quartz. Under the leadership of editor-in-chief Kevin Delaney, a former Wall Street Journal editor, and publisher Jay Lauf, formerly of the Atlantic, the project began with a staff of 20 journalists and four premium sponsors — Boeing, Cadillac, Chevron and Credit Suisse. Staffers from the early years say that Quartz calacatta luxury was marked by a culture of experimentation and innovation codified by an internal buzzword — “quartziness” — a nebulous term loosely defined as the meeting of creativity, quirkiness and intelligence. In August 2013, when Steve Ballmer stepped down from Microsoft, Quartz’s headline highlighted the CEO’s personal windfall from the surging stock: “Steve Ballmer just made $625 million by firing himself.” The clever take helped Quartz’s version of the story rise above the rest in the early days of headlines engineered for the social web, where hundreds of thousands of pageviews, if not millions, hinged on framing. “That was a very archetypal way we responded to breaking news,” said Gideon Lichfield, then an editor at Quartz and now the editor-in-chief of MIT Technology Review. “We talked a lot in those days about ‘quartziness.’ To figure out the unexpected take or angle on something and write that.” A Quartz style guide from the time encouraged reporters to “write at the intersection of the important and the interesting” and to “think social.” Stories should fall on the “Quartz curve,” meaning either short (less than 500 words) or long (more than 800 words), but not in the middle, a rejection of the typical length of a newspaper story in the mobile-reader ecosystem. The newsroom eschewed “desks” or “beats” and organized around “obsessions.” Africa’s economy is a beat, according to the style guide, but Chinese investment in Africa is an obsession — a phenomenon shaping readers’ lives and industries. “Obsessions” shift, while beats remain constant, in theory making Quartz’s newsroom more agile but in practice also permitting reporters to be more scattered. Quartz quickly gained a reputation among media navel-gazers as one of the most forward-thinking newsrooms on the “future of news.” The company was regularly lauded across the trade press, including by Digiday, for experimenting with technology in ways both useful (compelling visual ads) and charming (a light in the newsroom letting staffers know when it was going to rain). Before data-related editorial roles became industry standard, Quartz carrara melded the product into the newsroom, primarily through its “Things” team led by Seward. A combination journalism and coding squad, Things introduced a tool that allowed reporters to quickly publish their own crude charts. In traditional newsrooms at the time, placing a graphic into a story could be a time-intensive group endeavor. Given that a headline promising “one chart perfectly explaining” a certain topic was then a reliable traffic-generating trope, the tool allowed Quartz reporters to be more nimble and independent. Visuals and interactives spread across the industry, and Quartz helped set the standard for what digital business journalism could look like. In short order, the company was generating praise and awards. “One of the great things that Quartz did was really inspire newsroom leaders around the world to see news as a product and not just a chunk of text,” said Dan Frommer, a Quartz editor from 2014 to 2016 who now writes a newsletter called The New Consumer. “The fact that not only was everyone was allowed to — but was responsible for — their own charts led to a data and math literacy that a lot of places don’t encourage or mandate.” As Quartz’s profile grew, so did its traffic. Less than a year after launching, Quartz hit 2 million unique visitors and surpassed the Economist, a moment seen at the time as a changing of the guard. It signed on more advertisers like Ralph Lauren, KPMG and Rolex. Over the next few years, the Facebook referral gods delivered Quartz and a horde of other outlets booming traffic. The company expanded into new markets like India and Africa. By late 2015, it had a staff of 60 on the editorial side writing 50 to 60 pieces of content a day and was pulling in about 15 million monthly unique visitors. It dove into video and by March 2016, amid the video explosion on Facebook, reached 200 million views across platforms, the kind of milestone touted at the time by media executives who would later come to learn the fickle nature of Facebook video views. Competitors for ad dollars saw Quartz as a model publisher. “When I was running Slate, I looked at them with admiration,” said Keith Hernandez, that site’s former president. For the first two years of the business, Quartz rarely made concessions on price, scoring CPMs of about $75, according to people familiar with the matter. Its in-house sponsored content unit worked with big brands to fashion custom, sharp-looking (and less intrusive) native and banner ads, rebuking IAB standard display ad units. When Quartz opened up its chart building tool to the public, GE was the founding sponsor. The quality-over-quantity advertising mantra worked and Quartz’s prosperity reassured small and medium-sized newcomers that it was possible to score blue-chip clients with deep pockets. “There was a realization that the growth on Facebook was not going to be infinite, and that there might be a place for the middle class of publishing if you can create beautiful ads,” Hernandez said. Lost focus Quartz celebrated its fifth birthday in September 2017 amid a wave of optimism. “Quartz now reaches more than 100 million of you every month across various platforms. Just last month, our website had 22 million unique visitors,” Delaney wrote in a memo laying out the plans for the future. More expansion was on the horizon. There would be Quartzy, a new vertical expanding life and culture coverage, as well as Quartz At Work, to cover management and the workplace. An afternoon component was to be added to Quartz’s popular Morning Brief email. More video series would debut across Facebook, YouTube and Quartz’s site. Meanwhile, the ownership structure at Quartz’s parent company had changed. A few months earlier, David Bradley, the owner of Atlantic Media, sold a majority stake in the Atlantic magazine to Laurene Powell Jobs, the widow of Apple founder Steve Jobs. Quartz remained under the Atlantic Media umbrella, but Bradley made clear to those around him that the next generation of his family had no interest in becoming media barons. Speculation swirled that Quartz, an albatross around Bradley’s neck, was also for sale. Market forces were also starting to shift. Facebook, humbled by the press for its central role in the spread of misinformation, changed its News Feed algorithm in January 2018 to emphasize user content over publishers’. News companies coasting on the traffic bonanza saw their audience drop. Quartz, for its part, had experienced this kind of whiplash before. In the early days, the site picked up hefty referral numbers from LinkedIn only to have that evaporate when the platform pivoted to hawking its own content. Before the Facebook algorithm change, but especially after, publishers including quartz other marble copy renewed their interest in search optimization to diversify their referral sources. For legacy sites, returning in part to a Google-driven model was familiar. That’s how it was done before the Facebook gold rush (remember “What Time Is The Super Bowl?”). But Quartz had missed much of that era of media. “There was definitely a point where the shift in our referral traffic left us not entirely sure what the levers were,” said Kira Bindrim, Quartz’s executive editor. A slow contracting began on the business side. Native advertising became increasingly competitive. Every publisher across the industry operated their own custom ad shop. Campaigns at Quartz, one former business staffer said, needed extensive paid budgets to ensure traffic. “For a brand, getting some award because of a nice looking campaign — the value of that has diminished,” said the former staffer. “Brands aren’t willing to pay for that thing if it’s not really benefiting their business beyond sentiment. These were very expensive campaigns.” Quartz’s ad work is high-touch, custom and by its nature difficult to scale. “The composition of our advertising is still tried-and-true display units and content work. But we have over the years adopted more standard ad units,” said Katie Weber, Quartz’s current president who has been with the company since 2014. The site, for instance, now offers a 300 x 600 mobile IAB unit, something that it did not a few years ago. The move echoes other native digital publishers, like BuzzFeed, who were automated ad holdouts until about two years ago. Hernandez, formerly on the advertising side at BuzzFeed and Slate, said Quartz pushed the advertising envelope, but that it struggled to clearly define where it sat in the market. “Who were their competitors? Is it the Atlantic or Business Insider or are they up against the WSJ or FT? The answer was kind of ‘yes,’ so they became a smaller piece of the pie.” Brands today “love creative and the brand purpose, but at the end of the day they’re going to spend their money on things that work, and the things that work are Facebook and Google.” The move to subs In July 2018, Quartz announced that it had been acquired by Uzabase for a price between $75 million and $110 million, based on future performance (final sale price: $86 million). Uzabase had reached out to Quartz for a content partnership, and the talks turned into a full-scale acquisition. It was a coup for Bradley. Sources with knowledge of the company estimated that he was able to basically break even. Staffers were stunned by the acquisition. Few had ever heard of Uzabase, which owns the Japanese subscription service NewsPicks. “In Japan, people were really willing to pay for the NewsPicks experience, and there are so many different alternatives in this market,” said a former business side employee at Quartz. “Japanese culture has a different relationship with media and less competition. I could just never see it taking off in the U.S.” In late 2018, quartz pure color unveiled a paid membership offering — $14.99 a month or $99 a year — promising more content and events for Quartz devotees. Six months later it put in place a metered paywall. “The major change following the acquisition by Uzabase was to focus on building the subscription business,” Seward said. “There’s no doubt that having diversified revenue streams is critically important for us and any media business today. Any strong subscription business has only ever been built slowly and steadily.” Some reporters balked at the paywall and subscription model, as writers who want their work seen by the most possible people often do. Others felt like the job itself had mostly not changed. Newer features were given prominence, like “field guides,” deeply-reported stories about the state of an industry or topic. Today, the Quartz homepage appears more like a NewsPicks-style curation tool — highlighting stories from other outlets in addition to Quartz — than a traditional publisher homepage. As of the end of April, Quartz had 17,860 paid members. According to the latest Uzabase filing, the site makes $118,000 in monthly recurring revenue from subscriptions. “We’re covering the global economy for smart ambitious young professionals who want a more global view of business journalism than they get elsewhere, and trying to be as useful to that group as possible,” Seward said. Quartz is luring in new subscribers from places like its existing newsletter audience, according to Weber. She aims to grow the subscription revenue to 50/50 with advertising. “That doesn’t happen overnight and won’t happen this year,” Weber said. Quartz employees question their parent company’s patience. Uzabase said the goal for the restructuring is to “build a foundation for profitability between 2021-2022.” According to Uzabase’s 2019 financial report, total revenue at Quartz, which primarily consists of advertising, dropped 22% to 26.9 million last year from $34.8 million in 2018 . Quartz today, current and former employees say, looks and feels a lot different. In the years since the acquisition, the company has shed some of the definitive products that made it a frequent subject for the media press. The Quartz app, an award-winning mobile news product in the style of a chatbot, was retired in 2019 in favor of a newer product built around the NewsPicks app infrastructure. It debuted with fanfare: “Quartz Pros” like Richard Branson and Sallie Krawcheck offered in-app commentary. But Quartz ended the contributor program and the service now looks like a typical news publisher app. According to Apptopia, the new Quartz app has been downloaded about 700,000 times since it launched in November 2018. As the culture shifted, the company in the past two years lost some of its key editors to places like The New York Times, Reuters, and Medium, sapping morale. On the business side, chief revenue officer Joy Robins decamped for the Washington Post. The newsroom also had to deal with two tragedies, the deaths of editors Lauren Brown and Xana Antunes, both from cancer. “Both of their deaths hit us really hard,” Seward said. “We felt those deaths the way a family would feel them. I was really proud of how everyone was there for each other.” In October 2019, the attrition culminated with the exit of Delaney, now an advisor and New York Times opinion section senior editor, and Lauf, who became chairman and later moved to an advisory role. “They were really the heart and soul of Quartz, and it could never be the same without them,” said one former staffer. Seward, a co-founder, was named CEO and Weber was promoted to president. Returned to unparalleled By March of this year, Quartz employees were bracing for layoffs. Two smaller rounds of layoffs in 2019 had already exposed some of the uncertainty surrounding the business. When the pandemic broke out, Seward indicated that cuts were on the horizon (at the end of last year, Quartz had 188 employees). The layoffs were deeper than expected. Management rejected offers from the Quartz editorial union to hold buyouts or a workshare program, tactics that had been utilized by other struggling news outlets in Covid-19 times. The company declined to comment on negotiations, but Seward said it made more sense to do one severe cut than several over a longer period of time. For now, the layoffs have left staffers feeling dazed. Practically the entirety of Quartz’s geopolitics team was laid off ahead of an enormous political story. The award-winning video team was also shown the door. “None of the cuts we made were easy or obvious,” Seward said, adding that Quartz was proud of the quality of the video work but that it had never been able to figure out a way to generate significant revenue from it (particularly after Facebook curtailed its news video exploration).  

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    Design and Analysis of a Novel Tension Control Method for Winding Machine The filament winding technique has evolved in recent decades moving from classical lathe-type towards winding with an increased number of degrees of freedom using more complex equipment. These advancements complicate the selection of an optimum toroid winding machine set-up for the realization of particular winding methods and correlating part designs. This is further complicated by the variety of approaches. In order to investigate existing equipment technologies regarding feasibility, operational and economic aspects, different filament winding equipment is established in an experimental environment. Thereby advantageous solutions can be assigned to particular winding methods and the selection of appropriate filament winding equipment is facilitated. Filament winding has emerged as the main process for carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) fabrication, and tension control plays a key role in enhancing the quality of the winding products. With the continuous improvement of product quality and efficiency, the precision of the tension control system is constantly improving. In this paper, a novel tension control method is proposed, which can regulate the fiber tension and transport speed of the winding process by governing the outputs of three different driven rollers (the torque of the unwind roll, the torque of the magnetic powder brake roller, and the speed of the master speed roller) in three levels. The mechanical structures and dynamic models of the driven rollers and idle rollers are established by considering the time-varying features of the roller radius and inertia. Moreover, the influence of parameters and speed variation on fiber tension is investigated using the increment model. Subsequently, the control method is proposed by applying fiber tension in three levels according to the features of the three driven rollers. An adaptive fuzzy controller is designed for tuning the PID parameters online to control the speed of the master speed roller. Simulation is conducted for verifying the performance and stability of the proposed tension control method by comparing with those of the conventional PID control method. The result reveals that the proposed method outperforms the conventional method. Finally, an experimental platform is constructed, and the proposed system is applied to a gear toroidal winding machine. The performance and stability of the tension control system are demonstrated via a series of experiments using carbon fiber under different reference speeds and tensions. This paper proposes a novel tension control method to regulate the fiber tension and transport speed. High modulus carbon fiber is an excellent industrial material, which is widely used in several fields such as satellite supporting cylinder, shells of rocket engine, and solar array. The composite manufacturing process is the key to the application of carbon fiber. Filament winding has emerged as the main process for fabricating composite structures. It is widely used in building rotational parts. In the filament winding process, the carbon fiber is delivered from the unwind roll and passed through the resin bath to mix with resin under different temperatures and finally wrap around the surface of the mandrel in the designed pattern. The major specifications that should be satisfied during the winding process are the winding line type and the fiber tension, which are considered to be the key factors related to the tensile strength of the fiber products. The winding line type is determined using the numerical control system, so this paper focuses on the tension control problem during the winding process. Researchers have shown that unstable tension may lead to loss in strength of fiber winding products [1]. Therefore, fiber tension should be maintained at the reference value during the winding process for ensuring the product quality. Several factors shape the tension control design to be challenging, which include significant parameter variations and disturbances. Small variations in the change of velocity of the transport rollers can cause significant variations in tension. On the other hand, we used different shapes of mandrels for maintaining the line speed in acceleration or deceleration states. Because of the coupling between the tension and the line speed, it is difficult to maintain the tension at a desired value. Researchers have investigated considerably for acquiring better control result. Lee et al. [2] used a magneto rheological brake to provide back tension to prevent frequent part changes and fatal malfunction for a tension control system, and a PID controller was designed, and test results showed the feasibility with satisfying the time constant and the allowable error. Nishida et al. [3] divided the transport system into several subsystems and a self-tuning PI controller with an estimator based on a novel adaptive particle swarm optimization method was constructed to solve the strong coupling between the velocity and tension of the web. A self-tuning PID controller to control the tension for tape winding of composites was designed and the constant extension ratio is guaranteed. To reduce the time required for the stabilization of the tension, a faststabilization method [4] for web tension is proposed. The model of dancer system and stabilization of web tension in drying process are established, and the variation of tension is used as a reference value for the tension stabilization. The integration of load cells and active dancer system for printed electronics applications was used to improve the accuracy of web tension, and self-adapting neural network control was proposed to reduce tension spikes due to the change in roll diameter of winder and unwinder rolls. Wu et al. [5] developed a tension detection and control mechanism and analyzed the main causes of wire tension variation, and then a PI algorithm was proposed to reduce tension variation. An accurate dynamic model for the unwind roll by considering the time variation of the roll inertia and radius was developed, and a decentralized controller for computing the equilibrium inputs for each driven roller was proposed [6]. A sliding mode control with guaranteed cost technique [7] was applied for reducing the system uncertainties. The simulation results showed that the proposed method had good robustness and quick response time. Compensation method [8] by calculating the torque of a driven loop lifter was developed to control the tension and thickness of hot-rolled strip. For the control strategy, several control methods have been proposed including disturbance rejection control [9,10,11,12], neuro-fuzzy control [13,14,15,16], and H∞ control [17,18,19]. Choi et al. [20] conducted a survey on various types of control algorithms by investigating their strengths and weaknesses, and demonstrated some areas of potential future development. Most of the above studies considered the dynamics of driven rollers in the models but the behavior of idle rollers was ignored. Consequently, the models were under some limited conditions, which ignored detailed complex tension dynamics. On the other hand, most research focused on dynamic modeling and control strategy design, but the mechanical structure and the influence of parameter variation on fiber tension were ignored. In this paper, a novel tension control method is presented, which can regulate the tension and speed of the filament winding process. The mechanical structure and dynamic model of the system are established, and the influences of the parameter and the speed variation on fiber tension are examined. Subsequently, according to the features of driven rollers and the influence of variation, the control method is proposed by regulating the outputs of the torque of unwind roll, the torque of magnetic powder brake roller, and the speed of the master speed roller in three levels. Simulations are conducted for verifying the effect by comparing the results with those of the conventional PID controller. Finally, the performance of the proposed control system is verified through experimental studies using a filament slider coil winding machine. The structure of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the mechanical structure of system. In addition, the dynamic models are constructed, and the influence of parameter and speed variation on the rollers is examined. In Section 3, the control strategy is proposed. Simulations are conducted for verifying the effect of the proposed controller by comparing with that of the conventional PID controller in Section 4. In Section 5, the proposed mechanical structure and control strategy are applied to a belt head winding machine, and the experimental study is conducted for verifying the performance of the tension control system. The process line is divided into three zones (Figure 1): the unwind section, the process section, and the rewind section. In each zone, one or two rollers are driven using motors for transporting the carbon fiber from the unwind roll to the rewind roll. The carbon fiber is delivered from the unwind section to the process section, which consists of the magnetic powder brake roll, the master speed roller, and some idle rollers. In the process section, the carbon fiber passes through the surface of the master speed roller. As the carbon fiber is comprised of thousands of threads, the resin is properly pasted on the surface of the carbon fiber. The master speed roller is driven using an AC servomotor, and the speed is controlled for acquiring the desired speed and tension. The rewind section consists of a four-axis CNC system for acquiring the winding pattern. The control method of hook type winding machine is shown in Figure 2 in three levels. The control system can regulate the tension and speed of the filament winding process by governing the output of three different driven rolls—the torque of the unwind roll, the torque of the magnetic powder brake roller, and the speed of the master speed roller. In the first level, the unwind roll, which is driven using a torque motor generates a reverse force for applying a pretension to the carbon fiber. The pretension is set at a small value because large tension will cause the tension to deviate from the set point owing to the time-varying radius and the disturbance caused by the periodic swing. In the second level, the magnetic powder brake generates another pretension to the carbon fiber. The feature of the magnetic powder brake is to generate torque in a wide range without introducing considerable tension interference. However, its disadvantage is that the accuracy and response speed are inadequate than the speed control using the AC servomotor. Finally, in the third level, as the tension is close to the set value, the master speed roller is controlled for acquiring the desired tension. On one hand, the speed of the master speed roller traces the line speed of the carbon fiber as the reference speed. On the other hand, the speed is adjusted for maintaining tension at a desired value. The response speed is high when the AC servomotor operates in the speed control mode. Consequently, when the line speed of the carbon fiber changes rapidly or in the start-time period, the master speed roller maintains tension in a small range. The control system measures the speed and tension of the carbon fiber, and then controls the multivariable output of the torque of the unwind roll, the torque of the magnetic powder brake roller, and speed of the master speed roller. The mechanical structure and dynamic modeling of the system is presented as follows.

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    asdfaas33
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    How Parcel Lockers Will Transform Last Mile Delivery This study explores customer value in relation to parcel lockers, a self-service tool that reshapes the delivery and returns experience in the context of e-commerce last mile delivery. Parcel lockers offer a response to retail and last mile delivery challenges provoked by the rapid growth of e-commerce worldwide. Retailers, logistics service providers, communities, and other stakeholders now face issues due to increased volumes of goods sold online. The introduction of parcel lockers to service algorithms is intended to address these issues by involving consumers in the service process. However, the existing research fails to provide knowledge about the customer’s view on this new technological solution. This study followed a focus group design and built on grounded theory to provide insights into customer value in relation to parcel lockers. These insights can contribute to both research and practice. We consider the problem of designing a outdoor parcel locker network as a solution to the Logistics Last Mile Problem: Choosing the optimal number, locations, and sizes of parcel locekers facilities. The objective is to maximize the total profit, consisting of the revenue from customers who use the service, minus the facilities’ fixed and operational setup costs, the discounts in the delivery costs for customers who need to travel in order to collect their parcels, and the loss of potential customers who are not willing to travel for service. The problem is expressed as a 0–1 integer linear program. We show that it is equivalent to the well-known Uncapacitated Facility Location Problem. We then solve the modified problem, and apply it to an industrial-sized network. Parcel delivery lockers are fast becoming a familiar sight in malls, stores and train stations as the boom in online shopping leads retailers and logistics providers to look for new ways to deliver orders as quickly and efficiently as possible. Global sports retailer Decathlon is rolling out indoor parcel locker in its 1,500 stores as part of its click-to-collect service, while Amazon has had lockers in supermarkets, post offices and transport hubs across Europe for the last few years. Online shoppers select the lockers as a delivery option during checkout, then receive a QR or SMS code that will open the locker once the parcel is delivered. “Parcel lockers are becoming popular because of the convenience,” says Tessa English, Director, Industrial and Logistics, at JLL. “Consumers have more control over when they pick up their shopping, rather than having to wait for deliveries or risk parcels being left in the wrong place.” As online shopping continues to rise across Europe, shoppers are increasingly expecting fast, flexible delivery. DHL has a network of 340,000 lockers in Germany, accessible by 90 percent of the population, while many retailers, such as ASOS in the UK, also allow customers to return orders via a locker. “This gives customers greater flexibility over their shopping, especially as lockers located in transport hubs often offer public access 24/7,” says English. For retailers, parcel lockers are also a means to tackle the challenges – and costs - of last mile deliveries from warehouses to homes and offices. Trying to deliver packages to customers who aren’t home can cause delays on delivery routes, while getting orders to individual addresses often means putting vehicles on the roads before they’re full, raising costs and contributing to city centre congestion and air pollution. “Delivering to parcel lockers means a van could drop off dozens of orders at each delivery point, rather than just one,” says English. “This reduces vehicle movements and the number of vehicles required, which offers retailers and operators better route and cost efficiencies.” The right location Parcel lockers tend to be placed in areas with high footfall, such as supermarkets and train stations, although varying consumer habits in different countries – or even different areas of the country – have a big impact on location decisions. “A good location depends on retailer customer profiles – how frequently customers order and where they live. This is where big data can provide insight into the most effective locations,” says English. “What’s key is that customers can pick up the parcel along their usual journey, without a detour. As soon as the convenience factor is lost, electronic locker become a less effective investment and potentially also a less sustainable solution.” Furthermore, lockers need to be in secure locations with good surveillance to minimise the risk of theft or vandalism. Future building must-have? Across Europe, clothing retailers as well as technology and lifestyle brands have already partnered with logistics firms to deliver to lockers. And with more than half of UK customers predicted to shop for groceries online by 2021, refrigerated lockers for food orders could also become popular fixtures. Down the line, new residential and mixed-used developments could include a block of lockers, accessible by all residents as well as retailers. “In terms of convenience, this is probably the ultimate - a safe place for parcels that can’t fit into individual mailboxes, allowing people to pick up orders when they’re home,” says English. For landlords, providing that convenience could be an additional perk that attracts commercial and residential tenants – especially as online shopping across Europe continues to grow. “With many more goods going through the parcel network, there will be increased demand for convenient last-mile delivery options,” says English. “Retailers want to enable a more seamless, easy delivery. Parcel lockers are one part of the solution.” In this article, we have the Founder and CEO Dr. Arne Jeroschewski of Parcel Perform sharing his views on the state of the last mile delivery landscape and how the smart implementation of parcel lockers can be the way forward for the e-commerce world to meet the delivery expectations of consumers. There are many last mile delivery innovations in the market. So why am I focusing on refrigerator locker and collection point networks as the innovation that will transform the last mile? Imagine this scenario 50 years ago: The postmen making their rounds in your housing estate would only deliver letters to your doorstep. They will not release your letters without meeting someone at the doorstep. If you weren’t at home while the postman was making their rounds or missed them ringing your doorbell, you’ll need to collect and sign off your mail from your nearest post office. Understandably, this experience is frustrating, wastes valuable time and inefficient for everyone involved. This is why we have letterboxes in central locations that are accessible 24/7 for us to pick up our mail at our convenience. Surprisingly, we accept this frustrating experience for parcel deliveries even today decades after we solved it for letter delivery. Well, that is why parcel lockers are bound to innovate parcel delivery in the not so distant future. With parcel lockers, logistics carriers can deliver orders to a set parcel locker location, eliminating the annoyance and cost of failed first deliveries, rescheduling deliveries and the uncertainty of having someone at home to pick up an item within a vague timeframe. Likewise. consumers enjoy the convenience of 24-hour accessibility. With parcel lockers located closer to their home than post offices, they can pick up and return items at their convenience with minimal queueing and indirectly lowering service costs at the same time. Logistics carriers also see higher first delivery success rates, more parcels delivered per trip and improved efficiency – enjoying up to 5 times more parcels delivered per courier with the use of parcel lockers. The parcel locker system strengthens the global last mile delivery experience. In a recent analysis on the global parcel locker market by Belgium-based International Post Corporation, parcel lockers are already heavily used in Finland, Denmark and China – with a usage rate of up to 43%  Consumers prefer the storage locker method citing the 24/7 availability, ability to select delivery locations and lower delivery prices as reasons. Perhaps in a few years, we’ll look back and wonder how we could have managed our deliveries without the superior convenience offered by parcel lockers. Therefore, for parcel locker networks to be an effective solution to our parcel delivery challenges, they should be carrier-agnostic; where locker providers and delivery companies work together seamlessly across the industry. Likewise, locations of locker sites should be carefully analyzed for proximity to prospective consumers to help drive route density within the delivery network. An example of such a coordinated approach can be found within Singapore. In December last year, we at Parcel Perform had the pleasure in working with the Singapore government and the Info-communications Media Development Authority (IMDA) to launch the Locker Alliance programme; a collective parcel locker system allowing different locker operators, end-consumers and merchant partners to use the network seamlessly. Lockers are situated in several transport hubs near public housing estates around Singapore, allowing consumers to access their deliveries at their convenience. This project offers a vast range of benefits to consumers and the logistics industry: Parcel lockers at a network density that is impossible to achieve for any logistics player alone while simultaneously bringing the convenience of these lockers closer to the consumer. Higher utilization of all deployed parcel lockers that results in lower operating costs and therefore lower prices for carriers and consumers. Open access logic to allow all players to effectively operate and use parcel lockers regardless of their size and capacity to make significant infrastructure investments Parcel Perform are honoured to have worked closely with IMDA to develop the Interoperability Platform that unites all key e-commerce industry players to improve the last mile experience in Singapore.  

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    Our History Zhejiang Minong Century Group Co.,LTD was established in 1993. Since its establishment in 1993, We deep-rooted packaging printing industry chain, seized the rapid development of the industry's strategic opportunities period, in a short period of time from small to large, from weak to strong, from a printing enterprise rapid growth into a leading paper packaging overall solution. In 1993, Zhejiang Minong Screen Printing Co., LTD was establishment, it is also the predecessor of the Group. In 1995, we used the screen printing process to cigarette brands for the first time, developed the first screen printing scrub "Big Red Eagle"cigarette pack, which also marked the formal transformation of Minong into the cigarette pack printing industry. In 1999, the Group moved from Yile Industrial Park to No.92 Huaxing Road. In 2003, the Group moved from Huaxing Road to 100 acres of West Lake. Technology and Economic Park new plant, the Group also entered a period of rapid development. Zhejiang Minong Century Group Co.,LTD was formally established in 2012, opening a new journey of group development. On May 25, 2018, the Group has fully completed the relocation work again, from the West Lake Technology and Economic Park moved into the Qian Jiang Development Zone, it is a new plant with 200 acres, the new park formally opened, it means that the Group officially from the West Lake era into the Qian Jiang new era. Our Factory Zhejiang Minong is established in 1993, it is a packaging and printing joint venture enterprise with Chinese and Hong Kong investment dollars. We have facilities covering 150000 square meters advanced workshop and over 2000 employees. We have offset printing workshop, screen workshop, gravure printing workshop combines all the three kind of printing together in our factory. Each workshop is equipped with the most advanced machines in the world. The offset printing workshop is equipped with Heidelberg 4 colors, 5 colors, 6 colors,7 colors and 8 colors offset printing machine with both normal offset printing and UV offset printing. In our company, equipped with more than 20 auto-screen printing machines in the screen printing workshop, this makes our company one of the biggest Automatic silk screen printing machine groups in China. We have done many special effect with screen printing, eg screen printing Spot UV, texture effect, screen printing snow effect etc which is very elegant and beautiful. Besides offset printing, screen printing workshop, we have gravture workshop, there are two sets of gravure printing machine, 9-color ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING PRESS CERUTTI R 960-3 with in-line sheeter model up 911 imported from Italy, 9-color ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING PRESS, which assure us to have strong production ability. In diecut and inspection workshop, there are a series of machines up to 30 machines include Bobsthot stamping/die cut machines, cold/hot stamping machines, printed sheet automatic inspecting machines and small single piece inspecting machines. Also, we have one of the biggest handmade workshop for luxury paper box in China, all are experienced workers and equipped with full set of automatic folding box machines and related machines. Over the past 25 years, MINONG's sales have grown more than ten fold.Before 2006, the company's business mainly focused on cigarette packaging, cosmetic packaging.In 2009, the company established an integrated packaging platform;In 2012, the company successfully transformed from the traditional printing manufacturing mode to the overall solutions provider, providing communication solutions for customers in various fields.In 2012, the company started the hand-made cigarette case business.For the past five years, MINONG's sales have been growing at an average annual rate of more than 10%.At present, the company provides packaging and labelling, publishing, marketing services and solutions for customers in different industries. A streamlined solution covers the entire project lifecycle, and a single function can support a specific project or phase.MINONG's products cover books, boxes, labels, auxiliary sales materials, product catalogs, leaflets, notebooks, calendars, etc. Minong is committed to becoming the world's leading provider of integrated multi-channel marketing solutions and business communication solutions to help customers create, manage, deliver and optimize multi-channel communication. Minong advocates the value of price, quality and excellence, namely excellent performance, courageous responsibility and continuous innovation.Through multiple communication channels and incentive policies, this value is deeply embodied in every employee's work.Talent is undoubtedly the biggest asset for Minong's earnings growth.To this end, Minong provides employees with leadership incubation program, leadership Excellence Program, technical career development ladder, trainee program, rainbow plan, etc., aiming to ensure the sustainable development of human resources of the company and improve the career competitiveness of employees through perfect learning and development system and diversified training courses. Our Certificate First-class management provides solid support for the development of the Group. The Group continues to promote scientific management, has now passed the ISO9001 quality management system, ISO14001 environmental management system, OHSAS18001 occupational health and safety management system, GB/T19022-2003 measurement management system, GB/T23331-2012 energy management system, CNAS laboratory certification, national safety production secondary certification standards. Because of the advanced management and performance, Minong Group was named the national printing demonstration enterprises, Zhejiang Province green enterprises, by the city of Hangzhou awarded civilized printing demonstration enterprises, innovative and excellent printing enterprises, top ten printing enterprises and other honorary titles. Our Product and Market Specializing in package and print design, our products include cigarette packs, Cigar box, packaging and gift boxes, tea canister, Notebooks, publications, calendars and many other paper made products. All of our products are manufactured according to international quality standards and are greatly appreciated throughout Europe country, such as France, UK, Austria etc, North America such as America, Canada and South America such as Australia . Our company has always insisted on the business principle of "quality, innovation and customers first" If you are interested in any of our products, please do not hesitate to contact us for further information or details. We sincerely look forward to hearing from you. Our Enterprise Culture The purpose of the enterprise is to create value for customers, create platform for employees and create benefits for the society Core values create value through labor, especially intellectual labor Enterprise spirit innovation responsibility cooperation struggle The management idea institutionalizes the process information human culture Decades of enterprise practice solidifies the formation of excellent corporate culture, shaping the generation after generation of new forces in the inheritance and innovation, continuously accumulate the longevity of the enterprise "gene", and promote the cause of Sadie always outstanding forward. Adhere to the people-oriented, pay attention to talent training, humanistic care and career incentives, the fundamental interests of employees and the long-term development of the enterprise combined, for employees to build an ideal career development platform. Building a learning, open and innovative companies, unswervingly pursue innovation, inheriting the arduous struggle spirit, "to labor, especially the intellectual labor" as the core values, in the process of creating value for customers and society to realize their own value, through the excellent enterprise culture and value ideal, mustered out people with lofty ideals, promote sadie's career development. 2018 Outstanding employee of the company The Social Responsibility Operate in good faith according to law and create value for the society. We will actively implement the concept of innovative, coordinated, green, open and Shared development, drive scientific and technological innovation and progress, lead industrial transformation and upgrading, actively develop and apply green, energy saving and environmental protection technologies, and achieve win-win cooperation with enterprises upstream and downstream of the industrial chain. In the past five years, the taxpayer has paid more than 1 billion yuan.In the domestic and foreign markets, integrity and responsibility, careful service, strive to be a respectable enterprise, widely respected and recognized by all sectors of society. Actively participate in a number of public welfare activities, with love and responsibility to repay the society. Management Conference 2020 Management Conference 2019 Management Conference 2018 China A5 Composition Notebooks manufacturers website:http://www.minongpackaging.com/
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    Athena Fan
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    Inaugural American Bar Association NextGen Fellow 2017-18. Tweet at me @AthenaFanLT.

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    Aurora Martin
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    Founder of PopUpJustice and IthinkSAM. Former Executive Director of Columbia Legal Services, a statewide nonprofit civil legal aid program in Washington State.

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    BG Nabors Glass is the Vice President of Job Training and Education at Seattle Goodwill Industries. As a workforce development program, Goodwill Industries works with low-income people throughout the Puget Sound area and across three counties in Washington State.  Serving thousands of people through job training centers, retail stores, and donation sites, Goodwill is transforming lives through workforce development.

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    Becky Gould
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    Becky Gould is the Executive Director of Nebraska Appleseed, a nonprofit organization that fights for justice and opportunity for all Nebraskans. We take a systemic approach to complex issues – such as child welfare, immigration policy, affordable healthcare and poverty – and we take our work wherever we believe we can do the most good, whether that’s at the courthouse, in the statehouse or in the community.

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    Bernardo Cruz
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    Bernardo Cruz is a staff attorney at Columbia Legal Services, focused on advocacy on behalf of low wage workers especially immigrants and farm workers.

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