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  • Profile picture of ae293020ou
    saadad
    Scholar

    Our Factory Jiangyin Acesun Heavy Industry Machinery Co., Ltd. is located in Changshou Village, Zhouzhuang Town, Jiangyin City, Jiangsu Province. Acesun Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. is a professional company specializing in the production of various hydraulic packaging machines such as large hydraulic balers, gantry shears, metal chip briquetting press, etc. The main choice for the automotive, scrap, metallurgy, manufacturing, and mold industries. After years of experience accumulation and development, our company has become a professional manufacturer of all kinds of waste recycling industry, metallurgy, sanitation, mold and agricultural equipment. It has a certain scale and a building area of 2,000 square meters. The company has strong technical strength, advanced testing methods and complete supporting facilities. Through improved equipment, optimized services, and constantly improving the market competitiveness of enterprise products, the company is committed to providing quality products and serving customers. The company specializes in producing high quality hydraulic metal balers, metal hydraulic shears, chip cake machines, gantry shears, semi-automatic waste paper hydraulic balers, scrap crushing lines, used tire packing machines, metal briquetting machines and other eight series, eight More than ten varieties. With an annual production capacity of 300 units, it is sold well in more than 20 provinces and cities and over 30 countries and regions in the country. 70% of the company's products are sold abroad, and are trusted and praised by foreign customers. Our Product Hydraulic metal baler, Scrap Briquetting Press, Alligator Shear, Heavy Duty Shear, Steel Shredding Line. Product Application Scrap metal recycling industry, steel plant, metal recycling yard, metal and metal processing plants. Production Equipment Crane, lathe, drilling machine, welding equipment, cutting equipment, etc. Production Market Both domestic and foreign markets have sales, with a large proportion of markets in Brazil and India. Our Service 鈼哖re-sales: carefully confirm the customer's needs and provide the most suitable quotation plan according to the customer's actual situation. 鈼咺n the sales: During the production process of the equipment, the quality control of each detail will be closed, the quality inspection of the purchased parts will be strictly carried out, and the production tasks will be completed on time and in accordance with the quality. After the quality inspection and commissioning are normal, the equipment will be delivered to the customer in time. In the hands. 鈼咥fter-sales: one-year warranty, after-sales service.Tyre Bundling Machine website:http://www.acesunbaler.com/ website2:http://www.better-baler.com/

  • Profile picture of asdfaas26
    asdfaas26
    Scholar

    Cotton or cellulose fluff, cost savings or convenience, laundry or landfill: For some new parents, choosing between using a cloth or disposable diapers can feel like a big decision. How do you know which kind of diaper will work best for your family? Advocates for both cloth and disposable Baby Diapers make strident and often conflicting claims about the benefits and drawbacks of each. Depending on who you listen to, you may hear that either disposable or cloth diapers are the cheaper, healthier, more ecological, more convenient, and/or more enlightened way to care for your baby. In our full reviews of cloth and disposable diapers, we go into detail about the materials, construction, and performance of both types, but here we will address some reasons why parents choose cloth or disposable diapers, and what evidence exists to support them. Diaper rash and skin health Proponents of cloth and disposable Baby Pant Diapers both claim that babies wearing their chosen type suffer less diaper rash. After talking to two pediatric dermatologists and reviewing the scientific literature on the topic, it is clear to us that disposable diapers do have the edge in preventing the most common type of diaper rash, irritant diaper dermatitis, which is caused by moisture from urine and feces remaining trapped against the skin. Modern disposables are highly absorbent, and, as we found in testing for our guide, the top performers can keep a baby’s skin dry even after multiple wettings. Dr. Bruce Brod, a pediatric dermatologist who specializes in dermatitis, told us: “The skin is largely better off with disposable diapers because of the technology that evolved”—namely, the use of superabsorbent polymers, which take in and retain many times their weight in liquid. But some babies can develop allergic rashes from certain ingredients used in disposable diapers, including rubber, adhesives, fragrances, and dyes. The conclusion? Either type of diaper can lead to rashes, but disposable diapers typically keep babies drier and better prevent the common problem of diaper rash caused by moisture. Potty training Some cloth diaper companies and educational sites claim that babies who wear cloth diapers potty train earlier than babies diapered with disposables. Besides anecdotal evidence, these sources often cite the fact that the age of toilet training in the US has risen from around 18 months in the 1950s and 1960s to 3 years old today, a climb that tracks the increase in popularity of disposable Adult Diapers, from their introduction in the mid 20th century to today, with over 95 percent of babies in the US using disposables. Dr. Bruce Taubman, a pediatrician at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School and co-author of several studies on toilet training, told us he’s unaware of any scientific evidence that the use of cloth diapers leads to earlier potty training. “To my knowledge, there is no data,” he said, and suggested the change in the age of potty training likely has more to do with changes in family structures and parenting styles over the past several decades. A 1987 study in Japan compared a small group of infants—including twins—half of whom were diapered with cloth and half with disposables. That study found the two groups potty trained at the same age. An article (cowritten by a dermatologist and a researcher for Procter & Gamble) comparing diaper and toilet training practices around the world noted the age of toilet training seems to be influenced by culture, pointing out that babies in India and China (which have higher rates of cloth diaper use) and Russia (where babies predominantly wear disposables) all potty train earlier than their counterparts in the US and Western Europe. The conclusion? There is probably no reason to choose a diapering method based on potty training goals. Environmental impact The environmental impact that this new person will have on the world weighs heavily on some soon-to-be parents. One of the more commonly reported reasons parents considers cloth diapers is that they’re more environmentally friendly than disposables, or are believed to be. There is no question that disposable Adult Pant Diapers create more landfill waste: a baby is likely to go through between 5,000 and 6,000 disposable diapers before becoming potty trained. A 2014 Environmental Protection Agency report found that disposable diapers account for 7 percent of nondurable household waste in landfills. Except in very limited cases, disposable diapers (regardless of what they claim) won’t compost or biodegrade in a landfill. But disposable diaper advocates have countered that the energy and water costs of laundering cloth diapers, as well as the environmental impact of cotton production, make them less environmentally friendly than they appear, particularly in terms of the carbon emissions traceable to their care. The best life-cycle analysis we have found is a 2008 report (PDF) from the Environment Agency in the UK that compared the manufacturing, disposal, and energy costs of both Pet Diaper types. “The environmental impacts of using shaped reusable nappies can be higher or lower than using disposables, depending on how they are laundered,” the report concludes. The agency’s analysis found that based on average laundry habits and appliance efficiency, when washing with 60 °C (140 °F) water and mostly line-drying, the overall carbon emissions created by cloth diapering were roughly the same as those of using disposables. But using cloth diapers for a second child or getting them secondhand, exclusively line-drying them, and washing them in fuller loads could reduce that amount by up to 40 percent. (Whether there are any advantages to using so-called “eco-friendly” disposable diapers is even more complicated, and we are planning a separate post on that topic.) During the First World War, nurses noticed that cellulose was much more effective at absorbing blood compared to cloth bandages. This inspired the first cellulose Kotex Sanitary Napkin, made from surplus high-absorption war bandages, which was first sold in 1918. By 1921, Kotex had become the first successfully mass-marketed sanitary napkin (3, 1). In addition to providing the innovation for a product that would drastically change the options available to women, the war caused another major shift in women’s lives: they were now needed to contribute to factory production in a way they had never been before. Through ads and bathroom redesign, factory employers during WWII encouraged women to use menstrual products in order to “toughen up” and continue to work during their monthly bleeding. (This was in spite of the pervasive questioning of women’s “emotional stability” – female pilots were encouraged not to work during “that time of the month”). Wet Wipes are the San Pellegrino of butt-cleansing tools: They feel like a fancier, grown-up version of toilet paper. And addition to the posh factor, people who swear by them for their post-bowel-movement wipe believe that the method is more thorough and leaves the buttocks cleaner than it would otherwise be. And while I hear you concerning the argument at hand, an anal surgeon says it is time to ditch those wet wipes for good.

  • Profile picture of buo226
    https://www.chengwumed.com/blood-collection-tube/disposable-non-vacuum-blood-collection-tube/
    Scholar

    Precision metal stamping is a process for punching markings, three-dimensional shapes, or other designs into material surfaces, and precision stamping machines exert a high level of force to engrave dies and forms onto the surface material. Metals such as steel, copper, and aluminum are the most commonly stamped materials, though other metals, plastics, and cement can also undergo precision stamping. Benefits of Precision Metal Stamping Along with machining, die-casting, forging, and many other examples, precision metal stamping is a standard and ubiquitous manufacturing process. Some of its major benefits include: Lower die cost: Precision metal stamping dies tend to be relatively less expensive to produce and maintain than those used in other common processes. Lower secondary costs: Cleaning and plating precision stamping machines are cheaper than similar treatments for other metal forming techniques. High level of automation: Precision metal stamping machines are relatively easy to automate, and can employ high-end computer-control programs that provide greater precision, faster production, and quicker turnaround times. Precision Stamping Industries and Applications Precision stamping machines are useful in a variety of applications, especially those involving three-dimensional designs, lettering, or other surface engraving features. Such terminal stamping products are commonly produced for home appliance manufacturers, automotive companies, telecommunications services, aerospace industries, medical equipment manufacturers, and electronics companies. The specific products and components can range from simple metal stamping parts, such as metal clips, springs, weights, washers, and brackets, to more complex designs, such as those found in engine bases or friction plates. Operated with Computer Numerical Control (CNC) systems and provided with precise design instructions, CNC Lathes are machine tools where the material or part is clamped and rotated by the main spindle, while the cutting tool work on the material, is mounted and moved in various axis. CNC Lathe services are normally used for machining parts, where the material/part is clamped and rotated whereas the cutting tool is stationarily mounted for OD (Outer Diameter) and ID (Inner Diameter) operations, e.g. shafts and pipes. They are ideal for parts that have the same symmetry around an axis that could be chucked up (i.e. radially clamped) in the spindle. Most subtractive CNC machines such as mills, water jets, and plasma cutters have the workpiece secured to a bed and the cutting done by a spinning tool. To cut, the tool moves across the workpiece or a tool head shoots at it. In contrast, CNC turning company reverses that process by rotating the workpiece and cutting away at it (by moving a static cutting bit against the workpiece). Because of how they operate, CNC mills are primarily used for creating complicated geometries, while CNC lathes are used for creating cylindrical or oblong shapes. A CNC lathe is usually chosen over a CNC milling service or 3D printer because of its ability to make multiples of the same part incredibly fast and from one stock piece of material. Check out this mesmerizing video of a CNC lathe in action: Horizontal turning centers are enclosed CNC lathes that integrate milling and drilling capabilities. A turning center can also include a traveling tool turret, more tooling axes, coolant flooding, a tailstock that is separated from the carriage, and sometimes a conveyor belt. Injection molding processing is a manufacturing process that is commonly used to create plastic components. Its ability to produce thousands of complex parts quickly makes it the perfect process for the mass production of plastic components. Essentially, the process involves the injection of plastic at high speed and pressure into a mold, which is clamped under pressure and cooled to form the final part. By melting thermoplastic and injecting it into an aluminum mold at high speed and pressure, manufacturers can create multiple complex parts at once. When the parameters of the process are controlled correctly, there’s also little need for finishing and processing the manufactured part, making it more cost-effective and efficient.  

  • Profile picture of gu886gu
    http://www.welchlab.com/balance/industrial-weighing-scale/
    Scholar

    A moisture balance, also called a moisture analyzer, measures the amount of moisture in a substance. This is particularly helpful in food processing lab consumables as the amount of moisture can be an indicator of freshness and quality for some foods. These analyzers are also commonly used in environmental, pharmaceutical, and materials science labs. There are several techniques that may be used to measure moisture. Some techniques used include measuring water vapor released following combustion of the sample, measuring the difference in weight after removal of moisture from the sample, and measuring the equilibrium of water vapor of the sample in a closed system. Some things to take into consideration when purchasing a moisture analytical balance include capacity, precision, speed, method of measurement, software, and whether the samples to be measured come in solid or liquid form. Moisture analyzers, sometimes called “moisture balances”, are used to measure the moisture content in various types of samples including solids, liquids, and gases. Trace moisture in solids must be controlled for plastics, pharmaceuticals and heat treatment processes. Gas or liquid measurement applications include dry air, hydrocarbon processing, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, dielectric gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and natural gas pipeline transport. Due to the slow pace of traditional and manual laboratory moisture testing methods, automated moisture analyzers have been developed and can reduce the time necessary for a test from hours to just a few minutes. Moisture analyzers are utilized in different industries for many different purposes. They can be used in food industry to control the moisture. Excess amount of moisture in food may lead to staleness or bacterial growth. Furthermore, there are many food items which are sold by their weight; thus, it is important to make sure customers aren’t overpaying for water weight. On the other hand, too little moisture can reduce the calorie count or make the food dry. Moisture is an important factor affecting the consistency, taste, shelf appearance and many other factors in food. Moisture analyzers, as industrial weighing scale, are also frequently used in quality control and other laboratories. Moisture analysis is used in many fields to determine the water content in crude oil, fuel, sewage sludge and many other chemicals, solids and liquids. Most moisture analyzers have a computer interface to assist with the observation and analyse in the drying process and its effects on the sample. They have the capacity to save the tests in their memory to repeat frequent testing parameters without having to set them up over and over again to assist with the elimination of down time. How moisture analyzers work Moisture analyzers utilize Loss On Drying (LOD) method to measure moisture. In this method, the moisture analyzer weighs a sample, heats it up to dry it, and weighs it again once it’s dry. The weight after drying is subtracted from the weight before, so the loss of moisture is determined using the loss of mass. The heat generating system can vary from analyzer to analyzer. Some moisture analyzers use halogen and some use infrared or glass-free metal heaters positioned above a precision electronic balance. Halogen moisture analyzers are quick, efficient and responsive. These types of moisture analyzers are ideal to use where there is no single setting that heats all samples evenly. Density balances decide the density in liquid and solid materials as per the buoyancy method. Density balances are mainly electronic, maintain accuracy and beneficial to know the density in ceramics, glass, rubber, plastics, sintered metals and other non-metallic materials. The method of density determination, like textile balance, is denoted by high veracity and quick results. Liquid Density is measured via the buoyancy test with the glass element. On the other hand, the density in solid materials is decided by using the weight and volume of a sample. In Density Balances, the weighing unit determines the weight. The density of the Liquid must be ensured prior because the volume is obtained when the pressure of the sample is put in the liquid. The process of selecting chromatography sample vials for your laboratory can be complicated because there are many factors to consider as well as numerous options to choose from. This article offers guidance by providing an overview of chromatography vial options and how each can suit specific needs. When choosing a chromatography vial, the product material is of paramount importance. Depending upon the use, either glass or plastic testing vials may be best. Begin by considering the facts and benefits regarding glass ultra clean vials. Glass Vials Glass vials are pure, meaning they have no traces of contaminants within their components, for example metal, which could potentially interfere with an experiment. Glass is also heat resistant, which is vital because glass chromatography vials may be heated to over 500 degrees Celsius. That makes glass vials a common choice for many labs. Plastic Vials Plastic vials have their own set of specifications and benefits. It is important to note that the type of plastic makes a difference in the storage vial and its uses. Plastic vials can be made of either polypropylene or poly methyl pentene (PMP). Polypropylene is the most popular plastic material available. To put it in perspective, the recyclable containers you store your dinner leftovers in are commonly made of this as well as the plastic lid on a box of Tic Tacs. Polypropylene vials have a heat resistance of up to 135 degrees Celsius, are translucent and are used commonly in chromatography experiments. PMP has a higher heat resistance—up to 175 degrees Celsius—and is transparent, which increases visibility of the sample within the vial. Aside from scientific uses, PMP is used in the making of cookware, microwave components and even some windows. Plastic vials provide the benefits of good chemical resistance, light weight construction, durability and affordability.

  • Profile picture of ji26ji
    https://www.tntfabric.com/
    Scholar

    Plug Valve Basicsplug valve is shaped like a cylinder or cone and can be rotated inside the valve body to control flow of fluids. Plug valves have one or more hollow passageways often placed horizontally to allow ease of flow through the valve when open. The most common type of plug valve is the 2 port model with an open and closed position. The two ports are usually located on opposite sides of the valve with one passageway leading from inbound to outbound and the stem and handle located on the top. A plug valve also uses a quarter turn valve, which is useful where quick and frequent operation is essential. The valve ends can be flanged, hub type, or butt weld. Plug Valve Types and Their Uses Although there are many types of plug valves, there are four general categories, each with their own benefits. 1. Lubricated Plug Valve As the name suggests, a lubricated valve uses a lubricant usually made up of a base oil and viscosity improver (like amorphous or fumed silica) that is injected under pressure between the plug face and body seat to reduce friction and seal ports. Valve manufacturers generally recommend lubricant suitable for the process fluid, and the valves often must be resealed after only a few cycles, and in some cases, after every cycle. Considered a high maintenance plug valve, they are often used in applications that have infrequent operations. Lubricated plug valves perform well in processes that utilize fluids which carry mildly abrasive particles such as dirty upstream applications, gas pipeline systems that need bypass valves, and as blow-down valves on valve stations and kicker valves. 2. Non-Lubricated Plug Valve This plug valve utilizes a tapered or cone-shape that acts as a wedge and presses a polymeric sleeve against the body cavity. The use of the Sleeve Type Soft Sealing Plug Valve reduces friction between the plug mechanism and body. Non-lubricated plug valves are often used instead of lubricated ones in applications where maintenance needs to be kept to a minimum, such special services in sulphur, hydrogen fluoride, or where liquids could be trapped or solidify and potentially jam the valve. However, non-lubricated plug valves are limited by temperature and chemical compatibility of the non-metallic materials they are made of. 3. Eccentric Plug Valve The design of this plug valve uses a half plug that is advantageous for applications needing a higher seating force with minimal friction from open to closed position. The torque seated valves also feature improved shut off capabilities. Eccentric plug valves are used for a wide range of flow control and isolation applications including clean and dirty water, sewage, sludge and slurries, air, and other services. 4. Expanding Plug Valve This complex plug valve uses multiple components that allow the valve to mechanically expand and give it a true double block and bleed function in one valve. The plug valve uses a mechanism that rotates between the open and closed position and protects both seals from the flow path. During rotation there is no contact between body and seals, and slips expand onto the body seat when the valve is closed to avoid causing any wear or abrasion to the seals. They are often used to prevent product contamination in applications that do not require a double isolation. In conclusion, General Valves have a number of useful applications, and new technology and designs are sure to give them an even wider variety of applications within many processes. And if you need more information on different types of valves, check out this piece on check valves or the rest of the site. Ball valves are one of the quarter-turn valves along with plug valves and butterfly valves. They are widely used in piping systems. They can be operated manually or by using an actuator. The simplest operation of a ball valve is through the use of a wrench or a lever manually turned by an operator. A torque is applied to rotate the lever arm by 90° by either clockwise or counterclockwise to open or close the valve. If the lever arm is parallel to the pipe, Floating Ball Valve indicates that the valve is open. On the other hand, if the lever arm is perpendicular to the pipe, it indicates that the valve is closed. The operation of a ball valve is only limited to shut-off and on. It is not advisable to utilize ball valves for throttling as they lack fine controls for flow rate regulation. Ball valves come in many designs and features to satisfy various industrial needs.  

  • Profile picture of jiil66
    http://www.wdmedicalsupply.com/bandage/
    Scholar

    The Importance Of Bandages And Emergency Pressure Dressings Shallow cuts, scrapes, and abrasions may be minor in the realm of workplace injuries, but they should be tended to immediately. A well-stocked first aid kit is important to have on hand so that workers can treat their wounds in a timely manner. They also help ensure that minor injuries do not become infected. Employers should be sure to make first aid kits available at any workplace. Most minor injuries only require an adhesive bandage, such as a Band-Aid, or a small amount of gauze and tape. Bandages come in many varieties, and the appropriate should be used depending on the nature of the wound and the environment where a staff member works. There are waterproof adhesive bandages, ones made from flexible woven fabric, sheer strips, and heavyweight bandages for maximum strength that will not tear. Larger wounds that can't be treated with a bandage and need more absorbency require an emergency pressure dressing. This type of first aid product is made from high-absorbency fabric or gauze. It should be applied with a great deal of pressure and wrapped tightly with a bandage roll. In addition to emergency pressure dressings, some cuts and lacerations can be treated with alternative supplies. Steri-Strips and butterfly bandages are very small pieces of medical tape that can be used to bring the edges of a wound together to keep it closed and help reduce bleeding. Severe wounds require medical attention. A doctor or medial professional should be called if: ? The edges of the wound are jagged? The wound is on the face? The edges of the wound gape open? There is dirt in the wound that won't wash or rinse out? The wound is draining pus? The wound is tender and inflamed? The area around the wound has gone numb? Red streaks are forming near the wound? Bleeding is profuse and won't stop in 20 minutes For wounds that can be treated on-site, keeping first aid supplies in one central location, or multiple locations in larger facilities, is the basis for an effective and useful first aid program. Workers should be trained to know where these items are kept so that if an injury occurs, they will be able to quickly find and properly use bandages, Band-Aids, emergency pressure dressings, Steri-Strips, butterfly bandages, and other items. This knowledge, as well as the proper protocol for severe wounds, is essential to maintaining a sound and safe workplace. When to Use an Elastic Bandage ELASTIC BANDAGES FOR COMPRESSION AND SUPPORT AFTER AN INJURY Joint injuries can often be initially treated with an elastic bandage for compression and support. But there are many reasons and ways to use an elastic bandage after an injury, and times when one shouldn’t be used at all. Here are some tips about when and how to use an elastic bandage. ELASTIC BANDAGES ARE MULTITASKERS When used immediately after injury, an elastic bandage can serve many functions: - Control swelling around an injured joint - Hold an ice pack in place - Secure a splint after a fracture or severe sprain - Keep other bandages secure and protected HOW TO USE AN ELASTIC BANDAGE THE RIGHT WAY - Elastic bandages should not be used over an open wound. Clean and dress the wound before applying any type of wrap, splint, or other support. Serious wounds need professional medical attention. - Don’t wrap too tightly. A bandage that’s too tight can cut off circulation completely. Swelling at either end of the bandage, numbness or tingling, or discoloration means the bandage is too tight and needs to be adjusted. - Leave the fingers and toes unwrapped, exposed, and free to move. This also helps you stay alert to any changes in the injured area like redness or increased swelling, which should be examined by a doctor. - Adjust the bandage throughout the day. Unwrap the injured area, reapply the bandage, and secure with clips or tape, taking care that there aren’t any wrinkles or twists in the bandage as you wrap. A smooth wrap applies even pressure to the injured area. KNOW WHEN TO STOP USING AN ELASTIC BANDAGE The pain and swelling associated with a sprain can mask more serious underlying injuries, so know when to get more help. - If swelling and pain gets worse, it’s time to seek professional treatment. - If, after removing the bandage, the injured area still feels numb or tingles, see your doctor. - If a fracture on a ligament sprain is suspected, an X-ray or MRI will allow your doctor to prescribe the right treatment for your injury Six Good Reasons to Use Cohesive Bandage as a Strapping Tape Cohesive bandage is one of the most useful strapping tapes for sport. It is widely used in other countries, but is less well-known here in the UK where adhesive tapes like EAB or zinc oxide tape are more popular. This is a shame, because cohesive bandage is actually the best choice for many touchline tape jobs. Here are six reasons why you should include cohesive bandage in your taping armoury… 1. Cohesive bandage does not stick to the skin This might sound counter-intuitive; why would you want a strapping tape that doesn’t stick? Here’s the good part: cohesive bandage does not stick to the skin but it DOES stick to itself. When you wrap cohesive bandage over itself, it firmly coheres together (hence the name.) This makes it handy for any tape job that involves wrapping tape around a limb – i.e. most of the tape jobs you will ever need to perform on the touchline or in the changing room. And because it contains no adhesive, it will not inflict any damage to the skin or hair. One of our Rugby club customers who always buys cohesive bandage instead of adhesive tape puts it like this: ‘The lads don’t like to be waxed.’ 2. It is very stretchy Cohesive bandage stretches a lot – up to double its unstretched length. This allows you great flexibility to choose a level of compression to fit the situation. For instance, you could wrap it on with almost no stretch to give light support to a finger bend injury, or stretch it very tightly to provide heavy compression to a severely bleeding wound. 3. It offers variable levels of support Cohesive bandage offers a range of support levels for weak or injured joints – from light to quite firm – depending on how many layers of tape you wrap on. For instance, when wrapping a sprained ankle, you would avoid applying the cohesive bandage with too much stretch because this would create constriction and cause swelling in the foot. However, you can acheive high levels of support without over-constriction just by adding more layers. One or two layers of cohesive bandage, applied without stretch, will provide quite light support. As you wrap over extra layers, the level of support quickly ‘firms up,’ especially if you press the layers together. 4. It does not ‘give’ With some other kinds of strapping tape, you often have to apply them more tightly than you want them to be to compensate for the fact they stretch out and loosen off a little during wear. Cohesive bandage, on the other hand, does not have this level of give. It stays exactly as you placed it until it is pulled off or unwrapped. 5. You can tear it by hand Cohesive Bandage can easily be torn along its length and width. Because you don’t have to rumage around for your scissors, you can use it very quickly. Simply tear the tape from one edge in the same way you would tear a piece of paper. 6. It can be reapplied and reused Because cohesive bandage doesn’t rely on adhesive for its sticking properties, it does not lose its stick. So if you don’t get the tape job right the first time you can just unpeel it and try again. This property also means that you can repeatedly reuse the same piece of cohesive bandage. (Although if you’ve used it to wrap a sweaty foot you might not want to…) Dressing awkward areas Hippocrates appreciated that bandages could be tricky to apply: ‘One ought to be well aware that every bandage has a tendency to fall off towards the part that declines or becomes smaller as, for example, upwards in the case of the head and downwards in the case of the leg.’ The heels, elbows, ears, head, chin, breast/chest and sacral areas are notoriously difficult to apply dressings to and skilled application is crucial if a bandage is to stay in place for any length of time. However, the introduction of shaped bandages and tapeless dressing retention products has made the task much easier in many cases. With a few strategic cuts, different sizes of tubular bandage can be used to secure head, ear or chin dressings (Fig 3). Larger sizes with slits cut for the arms can be used as a vest to secure chest, back or complex breast dressings.  

  • Profile picture of pw26pw
    https://z2-lifting.com/
    Scholar

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is a body in the United States that plays a critical role in enhancing workplace safety around the country. If you operate a manufacturing company, you must be OSHA compliant so that you can avoid being on the wrong side of the law and so that your employees will be protected from harm. One of the main safety issues that you need to prevent in your manufacturing entity is injuries associated with falls. Several fall protection measures, which have been in place since 1971, govern workplace safety practices. To prevent falls and associated injuries, you must use the right types of lifting slings in your lifting operations. Given that there are several types of lifting slings, some people find it hard to select the best chain sling. This article highlights some of the factors that you need to consider when it comes time to buy chain slings for your company. 1. Weight and Strength of the Load Every time you evaluate different types of lifting slings for your operations, consider the weight and strength of the load. It’s common to see a load falling and breaking, especially it isn’t well-supported from the sides. Use strong rigging when dealing with a heavy load and provide support from all directions. Providing support from the sides will prevent falling, thereby preventing injuries to the workers on site. 2. Sling Flexibility It’s common knowledge that alloy lifting chain slings are flexible enough and can easily be stretched by a heavy load. There are other types of lifting round slings that can be stretched as well. Although this is not a very attractive property of lifting slings, it’s useful in adjusting the load’s center of gravity. This flexibility prevents the load from leaning on one side, which is extremely dangerous in the workplace. 3. Temperature Limits When choosing lifting slings, make sure that you pay attention to their temperature limits. Lifting slings have been made to accommodate temperatures of up to 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Anything beyond these temperatures could be catastrophic. If you’re buying chain slings to lift heavy machinery and equipment in harsh conditions, make sure that you check the temperature standards. The chain sling and lifting clamps you choose should be able to withstand excessive temperatures without stretching or melting. 4. Sling Ratings Most of the slings available have industrial ratings, which indicate specific conditions of use. Some of the specific details that will be indicated include temperature, load, operational conditions, and how they are attached to the load. Make sure that the chain sling with hoist that you will be getting meets the sling ratings consistent with your needs. If sling ratings and your needs don’t align, this could spell disaster for your workers. 5. Wear and Tear Resistance Chain slings are exposed to heavy stretching and lifting of very heavy loads. Therefore, signs of fatigue, wear, and tear is a very common problem encountered when using lifting string. When buying a lifting sling, try and find a sling that can withstand fatigue. You should get a chain polyester sling that does not crack when bent by a small radius. Get a lifting sling that can withstand wear and tear to serve you for several years. 6. Lifting Points Before making a purchase, make sure that your lifting sling has proper lifting points on the load. There should be a mechanism which allows your slings to be attached to the load. Otherwise, you will have to come up with methods of attaching the chain webbing slings to your loads. Check that the holes are big enough to accommodate the entire weight of the load and prevent falls. There are many different types of lifting slings available to you. Therefore, you have to conduct an exhaustive analysis before deciding on which lifting sling you need to use. After a careful analysis of your needs, you will easily come up with a lifting sling that meets your needs.  

  • Profile picture of tc26tc
    https://zenjoyplanner.com/
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    If you thought stickers were the preserve of toddlers’ books and playgrounds, think again. Branded stickers are now among the fashion industry’s most sought-after items, something to slap on laptops and lunchboxes as a way of conveying an affinity with a label at a fraction of the cost of buying its goods. Last week, skateboard brand Palace released its winter sticker pack and it sold out within an hour. With other rare versions, such as a single Supreme x Playboy sticker, reselling online for as much as £200, the big-name fashion brands are also jumping on the bandwagon. Calvin Klein Jeans recently made stickers using a classic 1980s image by Richard Avedon of Brooke Shields, while the fashion brand Coach has produced leather stickers, and Berlin’s hip o32c magazine featured sticker sheets from Louis Vuitton’s creative director, Virgil Abloh. A partnership between the luggage manufacturer Rimowa and Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson yielded a limited edition of suitcase stickers that sold out immediately. “It shows you’re part of a subculture,” said Dominik Pollin, of the Dover Street Market bookstore, Idea. Michael Kopelman, managing director at Stüssy, said: “It’s fun. You can put them on your car or lunchbox. It’s like tagging. Most won’t notice it, but the people who are interested do spot it.” Although councils in England and Wales restrict flyers and stickers in public places, they are increasingly appearing on lamp-posts and billboards across the country. Alex Powis, co-founder of Stickerarchive, an online collection of popular graphics, said: “Slapping a sticker up … is instant, whereas graffiti takes time and guts. It’s like coded messaging.” Traditionally not for sale by fashion labels, stickers have become an affordable way to tap into a brand. “There’s been a surge of interest in streetwear, lately and stickers are a core part of those cultures,” said Powis. Sarah Andelman, founder of the French concept store Colette, is a collector herself. “I have about three boxes full of all kinds of stickers that I started keeping from the age of 15,” she said. Instagram accounts such as Supstickers, dedicated to indexing and reselling stickers, have more than 50,000 followers. Edson Sabajo, CEO of Dutch streetwear brand Patta, said that sticker fans were taking part in the decades-old pastime of collecting. “Ours reference the latest graphics and give you a memory about a certain timeframe. That’s why they’re always changing,” he said. “People collect them all.” Others agree that the trend is a move away from the internet towards a more DIY approach. “In the last few months, I’ve been making more stickers,” said the electronic musician James Lavelle. “There’s something about having physical things that’s the opposite to a huge digital marketing campaign. There’s an authenticity about them.” Why Paper Planners Are Better Than Digital Planners and Calendars No matter if you’re a die-hard business person, freelance artist, stay-at-home parent or an office regular, you must have some sort of a system to plan, organize and prioritize your tasks and events. That system is crucial to getting things done – whether it stays on your Google calendar, all over your fridge on post-its, or on your paper planner. The rise of digital devices has heavily diminished our habits of note taking, journaling and plan setting on paper. Do you even remember the last time you wrote down more than 2 sentences by hand? Whatever we do and wherever we go, we seem to never forget to take our phones with us. So, clearly, many are moving their organizational systems to the digital world. However, despite the trends, the industry of paper planners, agendas, and productivity journals seems to be well off. More and more people are interested in owning a paper agenda and using it daily. This time we wanted to take a deeper look at the matter – what really makes paper planners better than digital planners? What are the benefits? We did some research and found 5 science-backed benefits you’d enjoy if you switched to paper planner. Also, gift boxes are better as paper, rather than digital ones.

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    http://www.hhitechlabwater.com/laboratory-ultrapure-water-purification-systems/
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    How Three Revolutionary Fabrics Are Greening the Industry If the holiday sales are tempting you to refresh your wardrobe, consider the environmental footprint of buying a new jacket and throwing away your old one. Today, about 80 billion new pieces of clothing are made each year—400 percent more than 20 years ago, while the world’s population only grew about 30 percent. That growth has a huge environmental cost. The Danish Fashion Institute named fashion “one of the most resource-intensive industries in the world, both in terms of natural resources and human resources.” Designer Eileen Fisher has called it “the second largest polluter in the world… second only to the oil industry,” and while that fact has been disputed, a 2010 research paper found that the industry is responsible for almost 10 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, once clothes have been made and worn for a short while, they’re thrown away. A new report from the Ellen MacArthur Foundation found that cumulatively around the world a truckload of clothes gets dumped every second. The average American tosses about 82 pounds of textiles a year, much of which ends up in landfills or incinerated. Of the clothing that reaches second-hand stores like Goodwill—only 15 percent of all discards—some is recycled into shoddy (filling for cheap furniture) or upcycled into things like denim insulation, but most of it is shipped to poorer countries. However, they too have limits—African countries including South Africa and Nigeria recently banned Western castoffs, which have overwhelmed their markets, causing the decline of their local fashion business. Replacing Old stock fabrics With New Biopolymers Two types of textiles—petroleum-made polyester and field-grown cotton, often woven together—have been the fashion industry’s darlings for decades. “Much of [what we wear now] is a blend of PET, a petroleum-based fiber, and cotton fiber,” says Ramani Narayan, a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at Michigan State University. But these hipora fabric have their issues. Cotton, which makes over 30 percent of our clothes’ yarns, is a natural material, but it’s a thirsty crop that siphons 3 percent of the fresh water, and accounts for almost 20 percent of pesticides and 25 percent of the insecticides used in agriculture worldwide, before it’s even picked. Processing cotton—knitting, weaving, and dyeing—also takes water and energy, yielding more pollution. The production of polyester, the demand for which has doubled in the last 15 years, is an energy intensive process that requires a lot of oil and generates harmful emissions, including volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, and acid gases, like hydrogen chloride, all of which contribute to respiratory disease. “Adding PET to a textile gives you better performance—it makes taffeta fabrics more moisture-resistant and gives them more washability,” says Narayan, but these textiles don’t break down naturally, and instead fill up our landfills and oceans. Polyester threads discarded from washing machines have recently been found in fish, including some species we eat. Unless PET threads are decoupled from cotton and recycled, they don’t decompose, but separating fibers is very difficult. That’s where biopolymers come in.  Biopolymers are macromolecules—long chains of smaller molecular units strung together.  These basic units can be amino acids, nucleotides, and monosaccharaides. The most common biopolymer is cellulose, which makes up one third of all plant material on earth. Cotton is 90 percent cellulose, but there are other, less polluting alternatives. Biopolymers can be grown or harvested from other plants like kelp or from living organisms like bacteria or yeast, which produce biopolymers as part of their lifecycle. The resulting fibers can be woven into a variety of textiles akin to polyester, leather, or a cellulose-like yarn. To a certain extent, these materials can sequester carbon from the atmosphere, acting as wearable carbon sinks. And when they’re thrown away, these biopolymers will decompose. Just as a cotton t-shirt will break down in a compost heap after a few years, so will any biopolymer-based textile. “Obviously it’s better to use plants and biomass to make products,” says Narayan, “because then the plants fix the carbon and when you make a product from that you have removed carbon dioxide from the environment.” Using biopolymers in clothing can reduce energy and freshwater use and may help mitigate climate change resources. Plus, as the following examples show, some biopolymers can take the creativity of fashion design process in a whole new direction. Seining Sweaters from the Sea AlgiKnit uses kelp, a type of seaweed, to produce a biopolymer called alginate, which is then used for textile production. Kelp grows all over the world, forming offshore kelp forests. Some kelp species grow quicker than the fastest-growing terrestrial plant, bamboo, and are inexpensive to farm. As it sprouts, kelp cleans water too—absorbing phosphorous, nitrogen, and five times more carbon dioxide than land plants—so farming it near seaside cities can improve polluted local waters. Like any plant, kelp absorbs carbon to grow, so when used in durable materials, it is also a carbon sink. AlgiKnit extracts alginate from kelp by adding certain salts to the seaweed base. After the so-called “salt bath” pulls the alginate from the kelp’s cell walls, the biopolymer is extracted from the seaweed residue, dried into a powder and fused into a yarn that can be turned into a variety of stretch fabric types. “The process is similar to that of synthetic materials, where one long continuous strand is produced,” says Tessa Callaghan, the co-founder of AlgiKnit. “The filament can be plied and twisted to increase strength, or cut into short fibers for other purposes.” AlgiKnit won National Geographic’s Chasing Genius Competition for developing this technology. The team’s big challenge has been to get their end fiber to be strong and flexible enough for use on an industrial knitting machine. It took a lot of experimentation to ensure compatibility between yarns and machines, but one of the team’s goals is to be able to use the yarn in the existing fiber and textile infrastructure, to streamline the new material’s acceptance, Callaghan says. Modern Meadow’s yeast-produced collagen is another biopolymer that is about to make its runway debut in a form of a leather product named Zoa. The New Jersey-based company designs DNA that can yield collagen, the protein that makes up leather. These specially constructed DNA strands are inserted into the yeast cells. As the yeast cells grow and multiply, they produce collagen and other proteins essential in forming leather, which then cluster together to make a triple-helix collagen molecule. The resulting molecules form bundles that are “cooked” in Modern Meadow’s “secret sauce,” resulting in a leather-like material. “We design DNA that can make collagen, the main building block of leather, then we purify it, and then use an assembly process to turn it into leather,” says Susan Schofer, vice president of business development at Modern Meadow. Compared to traditional leather industries, Zoa’s production has a lower environmental impact and more fashion design opportunities. To turn a piece of animal hide into bags, shoes, or pants, it must undergo chemical and physical treatments to remove fats, hair, and other impurities. That processing is ecologically and medically fraught—most leather tanning is done in countries with few or unenforced environmental laws because the effluent from the process contains fish-killing sulfides, carcinogenic chromium, and chlorinated phenols that are linked to bladder and nasal cancers in tannery workers. Using yeast to grow collagen eliminates the animal part of the equation—including slaughter and subsequent hide processing. It yields higher quality materials—perfectly shaped hides without branding marks or scars, and yields very large spans of leather, much bigger than a cow’s body. It also offers nearly endless creative design ideas. The new collagen can be sprayed on top of another minimatt fabric to create never-before-seen leather fashions, like the t-shirt that is currently on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York as part of its Items: Is Fashion Modern? exhibit. This material can also be embossed or textured in ways that cow or pig leather just can’t. Modern Meadow will be introducing Zoa to market in 2018. The production facilities are already available from related industries such as biofuels. “We use 200,000 or 500,000-liter fermentation tanks [for the yeast],” says Schofer, “So the infrastructure already exists around the globe to take this from lab to commercial levels.”  

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    https://jiade-group.com/
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    Steel Pipes Steel pipes are the most commonly used pipes in water supply systems. They are also used in pipelines for natural gas, and sewerage systems. Although comparatively expensive to other pipes, they hold the advantage of being able to withstand high pressures and are available in more convenient lengths, and can also be welded easily, thereby resulting in lower installation and transportation costs. These types of pipes are highly efficient and can be used in small diameters as needed and are 100% recyclable compared to other materials. The pipes can further be melted down and turned into other usable material in industry. Furthermore, the high strength of these pipes and resistance to damage caused by human errors, tree roots, and extreme weather conditions make these pipes the ideal choice for most water and sewerage supply systems. The disadvantages of steel pipes include thermal conductivity, which is very poor as there is a difference in heat transfer. These types of pipes are usually bonded with aluminum or copper alloy to increase thermal conductivity and improve heat transfer. Cost is another issue, as these pipes are expensive and this is guided by the misconception of being a one-time purchase. However, steel pipes are difficult to fabricate and lack the malleable qualities that other materials have, therefore repairs and replacements of steel pipes are extra difficult. Basic material properties Steel is strong, rigid, and has a low coefficient of thermal expansion. It is also heavy (multiple workers may be needed to transport it) and is subject to corrosion. Sometimes it is called carbon steel or black special steel to differentiate from stainless and galvanized steel. All steel, by definition, contains carbon. Steel often is used for closed hydronic systems because it is inexpensive, especially when compared with other materials in systems with high pressures, and corrosion is relatively easily controlled in these systems. It also is a good choice for steam and steam-condensate systems because it handles high temperatures and pressures well, and corrosion is normally not an issue in steam pipes. However, corrosion is an issue in steam-condensate pipes, and many engineers specify schedule 80 steel pipe simply because it takes about twice as long to rust through as schedule 40 pipe. If amines (commonly cyclohexylamine, morpholine, or diethylethanolamine (DEAE) are fed properly to neutralize condensate pipe pH, condensate pipes can last the life of the building. Some building owners do not want these chemicals in steam that may be used for humidification because of health concerns; however, not using these amines might require a change to stainless steel (SS) piping or adding a separate “clean steam” system for humidification and for sterilization of medical instruments. Rigidity is important because it determines the distance between hangers. Steel pipe is manufactured in 21-ft lengths, and the hangers can be spaced that widely for large-diameter pipe. More flexible materials, however, may require hangers on as close as 4-ft centers or even continuously. Consult ANSI/MSS SP-58: Pipe Hangers and Supports – Materials, Design, Manufacture, Selection, Application, and Installation for details about hangers and hanger spacing. A low coefficient of thermal expansion minimizes the need for expansion loops and expansion joints. However, the high rigidity of steel means that although it expands less, it exerts very high forces on anchors. Galvanized steel pipe is steel pipe that is dipped into a pool of zinc (see Figure 1). Galvanizing has two methods of corrosion reduction: It coats the surface like paint, and under most circumstances it forms a very adherent oxide layer like aluminum and SS. It provides a sacrificial anode (zinc) to receive corrosion instead of the steel corroding. Galvanized steel pipe has all the advantages of steel pipe, and is used in insulated and coated piping, plus improved corrosion resistance in most environments, although at a slightly higher cost. Galvanizing works almost perfectly in applications where it is wetted and dried periodically (e.g., road signs and guard rails). It can fail in environments with high sodium (e.g., softened water that started out very hard) because the sodium makes the adherent oxide film detach and react more like steel pipe where the oxide flakes off. If galvanized pipe is being welded, the welder needs to be careful to grind down to the raw steel. Repairing galvanizing on the inside of the pipe is difficult or impossible. If the interior needs a continuous galvanized layer, consider mechanical couplings. (More information is available via the American Galvanizers Association.) Copper pipe often is used in both hydronic and domestic applications, especially for 2-in. and smaller pipe sizes. However, some contractors propose replacing galvanized steel domestic-water pipe with copper up to 6-in. in size, especially in the Midwest. Copper is an expensive material but has the advantage of weighing less than steel and may require fewer employees to install, depending on weight and union restrictions. Also, copper is generally more noble and corrosion-resistant than steel or galvanized steel pipe fittings. Stainless steel is widely considered to be resistant to all corrosion. This is true in many circumstances, but not all. Anaerobic and chloride corrosion can affect SS. The most common alloy is 304 SS, which adds 18% chromium and 8% nickel to steel. 304L has reduced carbon content to minimize the tendency for SS to corrode at welds. SS with the L designation is recommended for all SS that will be welded and might have corrosion issues, like fume exhaust and some pipe systems. 316 and 316L add molybdenum to reduce susceptibility to chlorides. In the past decade, we have seen thinner SS being proposed as an alternative to galvanized seamless steel tube and pipe and larger-diameter copper pipe, primarily for domestic potable-water piping. There is one potential problem with this if done incorrectly (see, “Mixing materials may equal trouble”). SS requires some oxygen to build an adhering oxide layer, like aluminum car wheels. This is normally not a problem in hydronic heating/cooling systems or domestic-water systems, but a large chilled-water-storage system could have oxygen levels become low enough to have issues with microbially influenced corrosion (known as MIC). There are many grades of SS. In general, 300 series alloys are the most corrosion-resistant and are nonmagnetic. 400 series are harder, more resistant to abrasion, withstand higher temperatures, and are magnetic. 200 series alloys are used in sinks and applications where less corrosion resistance is acceptable.  

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    http://www.handeair.com/screw-air-compressor/two-stage-air-compressor/
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    How Do Air Compressors Work? Air compressors are an invaluable tool for both industrial work and DIY at home, and there are several different types to choose from depending on the job you need doing. Air compressors have a number of uses, such as to fill gas cylinders for industrial purposes and scuba diving, to create the power needed to run pneumatic tools and spray guns, for pumping up automotive tyres, and within heating and air conditioning systems. As we’ve touched on here, there are myriad uses for screw air compressor both in commercial and domestic environments. Within the category of air guns, there are several types, each of which is suitable for a different job. We’ve compiled a guide to all the major types of air compressor, how they work and how they differentiate from one another. Whether you’re an engineering manager or in charge of facilities for your company, being informed about how air compressors function and what they’re used for is handy and can help you make the proper decisions for your business and industry. Get all the information you need to know about air compressors, complete with the infographic below, with our comprehensive guide. We’ll address the benefits of using premium air compressors in your industry, as well as the questions of ‘what are compressors?’ and ‘how does a compressor work?’, covering all the essentials in one convenient place. The infographic below shows how a Hydrovane series rotary sliding vane air compressor works Since their invention in the 19th Century, mechanical, automated air compressors have continued to be one of the most widely used tools in industrial settings. Air compressors provide a continuous stream of power that is safer and cooler than many other forms of energy. For many industries, such as metal work and mining environments, air compressors are an absolutely essential tool. After the basic utilities of water, gas and electric, compressed air is actually considered to be the fourth utility. Air compressors are also an affordable choice of tool for many manufacturing jobs, as they are durable, and high quality types require minimal maintenance and repairs. Between the two main categories of compressor – the scroll (piston) compressor and the rotary screw (reciprocating) compressor, you have a tool for every type of industrial and commercial setting, as well as various domestic uses. The most common types of regular screw air compressor are single and dual phase, both of which operate in the same fundamental way, only dual phase has one more step involved in the compression process. In a single phase compressor, there is one chamber and the air is compressed a single time; in a dual phase, there are two chambers and the air is put through compression twice. Be careful not to confuse single and dual phase compressors with the number of cylinders a compressor has. Both types of compressor use two cylinders; one-cylinder compressors are less common, because air balancing is made easier with two cylinders. The difference between single and dual stage compressors is that in the former the cylinders are both the same size; in the latter they are different sizes. How Do Single and Dual Phase Compressors Operate? Single phase compressors, also referred to as piston air compressors, works in a relatively simple and straightforward way. First, air is drawn into the cylinder; from here, it is compressed once by a single piston movement within a vacuum system. The power of this compression is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch) or Bar – the higher the PSI/Bar, the more power the compressor has. In a single stage air compressor, the air is typically compressed at a rate of around 120 PSI (8.2 Bar). After the air has been compressed, it is sent into the storage tank from where it is dispelled into various tools as a source of energy. Dual phase compressors operate the same way, except there are two stages of compression, rather than just one. After the first round of compression, the air is sent into a second chamber, where it is compressed for the second time, at a rate of around 175 PSI (12.1 Bar). After this, the air is sent to a storage tank in which it is cooled down and ready for application. Both types of compressor are typically powered by either an electric or petrol motor, which drives the piston and causes the compression to happen. Single Phase and Dual Phase Applications Both function in fundamentally the same way and can be used for similar tasks, such as operating a pneumatic drill or other high-powered tools such as those found in a manufacturing plant. Single phase compressors tend to be used within domestic settings for smaller workshop jobs done with handheld tools, such as woodwork, metal work and general DIY. Dual phase compressors, on the other hand, are better for larger scale work in operations such as operations needed in vehicle repair shops, pressing factories and other plants where parts are manufactured. Oil-Free vs. Oil-lubricated Air Compressors Another way to compare variable frequency air compressor is to look at whether they use oil or not – there are oil-free and oil-based / lubricated compressors and both are suited to slightly different jobs. For the air to be drawn into the chamber safely and effectively, the piston needs to be in top working order. To work properly, the piston must be lubricated with oil. With regards to lubrication, there are two main types of compressor to choose from: oil-free and oil-based. The oil is used on the cylinder to ensure the compression goes smoothly. The Difference Between Oil-Free and Oil-Based Compressors Oil-free air compressors already have a lubricated cylinder (often with a non-stick material such as Teflon) and therefore require no further maintenance to work properly. Oil-based compressors require oil to be added to the piston area and changed regularly. Just how often you need to change the oil will be outlined in the manufacturer’s manual that came with your compressor. On the whole, oil-free compressors tend to weigh a lot less than oil-based compressors, as not only do they not have the weight of the oil, but they are more compact machines, requiring fewer separate parts to make them work. Oil-free compressors, being less complex in design, also tend to be more affordable than oil-based compressors. However, although they’re more weighty and expensive, oil-based compressors have their benefits. For one thing, they are strong and durable, and usually have a longer lifespan than their oil-free counterparts. This is usually because over time the greasing material (usually Teflon) begins to wear down and lose its lubrication abilities. Another important factor that should be considered when choosing between an oil-free and oil-based compressor is that the oil-less version tends to heat up faster and to a higher temperature than those which use oil. Compressors without oil also make a lot more noise than those with, so if you want a less noisy workplace, this is a factor to consider too. Oil-Free and Oil-based Compressor Applications Oil-free compressors are a great option for those in need of a lightweight, low maintenance tool for home use. Oil-based compressors are better suited to heavy duty jobs and commercial and industrial use, as although they’re generally heavier and require more maintenance, they are also more robust and versatile. For industrial purposes and extensive, day-long use, oil-based compressors are by far the best option. If you’re looking to invest in quality compressors for your business, opting for oil-based machines is almost certainly the best route to take. Within an industrial or commercial setting, there are numerous uses for oil-based PM screw air compressor, including: Vehicle painting and repairs Sanding and woodwork Creating snow banks in ski centres Tools within dentistry and other medical environments Pneumatic construction tools such as nail guns Air cleaning tools such as blowguns Oil-free compressors can be used for domestic use, such as small-scale jobs like blowing up balloons, home workshop and DIY jobs. They are also largely used in industries where there is a need to avoid the product or consumer coming into contact with oil: food and beverage, pharmaceutical and dental, for example. In these sensitive applications, the consequences of having oil contamination in the air are too high to risk, so having an oil free compressor is a must. There is compressed air quality testing from the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) which oil-free technology can help you achieve. Fixed vs. Variable Air Compressors Another factor to consider when choosing the right type of air compressor for your industry is whether they’re equipped with fixed or variable speed. Let’s take a closer look at what these different types of compressor can do for you. The main difference between air compressors that use a fixed speed system and those that use variable speed is the manner in which the motor gets its power. The compression element is much the same across all machines, but the way the motor operates has an effect on the usability, efficiency and lifespan of the machine. How Do VSD Compressors Work? Variable speed compressors (often referred to as VSD (Variable Speed Drive) or VFD (Variable Frequency Drive) – compressors) operates by automatically adjusting the motor speed in accordance with the demand for air. This happens through a system that converts voltage from the mains power supply into a variable frequency. Power is drawn through a converter, inside which it is converted twice. First, it converts AC power into DC power using diodes. A capacitor then cleans the AC, and then converts it to DC using a transistor, which acts as switches. These switches control the frequency of power sent to the motor, which in turn controls the speed of the motor. A VSD air compressor contains this technology, allowing the speed of the motor and the amount of air compression used to be closely controlled. There are pros and cons to both variable speed compressors and their counterpart, fixed speed compressors – check them out below to decide which one is best for your industry. Fixed Speed Pros and Cons Fixed speed air compressors send a consistent, continuous stream of power into the motor, which gives you a reliable frequency in all your air compression jobs. The initial cost of fixed speed compressors is lower than that of variable speed compressors, is easier and cheaper to maintain and is a must-have within industries where the power demand is continuous. This type of compressor is, however, less efficient than its variable speed counterpart. It is also less efficient at saving energy, and can therefore be more expensive to run, with fewer incentives available too. Variable Speed Pros and Cons Variable speed air compressors allow you to control the voltage and the frequency of the power in the motor, giving the user more agency over the tool. This type of compressor is more efficient when it comes to power usage, as you can easily control your output and only use what you need. Many industries will find that this type of air compressor is ideal, as it can be used in line with the demand of the job. When less power is needed, you can easily adjust the speed of the compressor, saving money and protecting the environment at the same time. The downsides of a variable speed compressor are that there is a higher initial capital cost to pay, and maintenance and repairs are more expensive too. They are also not well suited to applications that require a continuous stream of power. Piston Compressors, Scroll Compressors & Rotary Screw Compressors So far in this article, all the compressors mentioned are operated using pistons, which is a generic system for one type of compressor – the scroll compressor, also known as a reciprocating air compressor. The other type is the rotary screw compressor, which doesn’t have pistons and operates in a slightly different way. Here’s a quick overview of how scroll compressors and rotary screw / reciprocating compressors work, and what the unique benefits are of each of them. Scroll Compressors Scroll compressors are a type of piston compressor, and are also called reciprocating compressors. These are the most common type of two stage air compressor, due to affordability and general availability. But how does a reciprocating air compressor work? The piston system works by having a piston travel downwards, decreasing the pressure inside its internal cylinder through the creation of a vacuum. The sudden change in pressure causes the door of the cylinder to be forced open, and draw air in. When the piston travels up again, the air is forced out of the cylinder at a much higher pressure point. This continues in a reciprocating, ‘scroll’ pattern, hence its name. Pros and Cons of Scroll Compressors Pros: Cools down quickly More efficient use of energy Cons: Higher initial capital cost More complex parts – harder to maintain Rotary Screw Compressors Rather than using pistons, rotary screw compressors rely on rollers to do the compression. Rollers are positioned just off the middle of the central shaft to ensure that one side of the roller is always in contact with the wall. The rollers are powered, rotating extremely fast, causing the same result as scroll compressors: they draw in air at a low pressure and force it out at a higher pressure. Pros and Cons of Rotary Screw Compressors Pros: Good power capacity Lower initial capital price Easy to maintain Cons: Limited cooling abilities Require continuous maintenance checks How Do Low Noise Air Compressors Work? One complaint often heard around air compressors is that some of them are noisy due to friction and a power source, which can be distracting and inconvenient for both commercial and domestic use. The industry has risen to deal with these complaints however, and there are several low noise air compressors to choose from, offering a decibel rating of around 40 dB. 40 dB is considered low noise; 60 dB is considered the safest decibel level for compressors; anything over 85 dB could cause long-lasting damage to your hearing, and you should avoid being exposed to this level for extended periods of time. Low noise and silent air compressors are available in both oil-free and oil-based versions, so just how is the silencing effect achieved? As well as choosing compressors with low decibel levels, one aspect of this technology that makes a big difference is the inclusion of an acoustic chamber for containing the noise. Another tip is to opt for electric-powered compressors, rather than gas-powered, as the former type of power source makes for a quieter machine. The Bottom Line Which type of air compressor you go for depends on a variety of factors. You first need to consider what application the compressors will be used for? Do you need it for continuous, ongoing use in large industrial machinery, or will it be used sporadically? Your answers to these questions will help you decide on whether to go for variable or fixed speed compressors. Another question that you must factor into your decision is: how much do you want to spend? Remember that the initial price of a quality compressor is not the only expense associated with a compressor; consider also the cost of the power needed to run the machine, plus any related ongoing maintenance and repair costs. How much time and energy will investing in high quality compressors save your company? These are all important calculations that should be made before making your decision. Get in touch below if you wish to find out more.